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Rt. Rev. Edward Melville Parker, D.D., Chairman, 
Bishop Coadjutor of Now Hampshire. 

Rev. Thomas Burg...- . ' 

Saco. iVia ne. 

Rev. Rottrt Keating Smith. 
WestfieW, Massachusetts. 

Presented at the Council of the Department held at 
Providence, Rhode Islana, October 23, 1912. 

SiJringflcld. Massachusetts. 


^^B "^^ Ve 



Copies of this Report may be had 

at Twenty-five Cents each 

from the Rev. Thomas Burgess, 

Saco, Maine. 








Rt. Rev. Edward Melville Parker, D.D., Chairman, 
Bishop Coadjutor of New Hampshire. 

Rev. Thomas Burgess, Secretary, 
Saco, Maine. 

Rev. Robert Keating Smith, 
Westfield, Massachusetts. 

Presented at the Council of the Department held at 
Providence, Rhode Island, October 23, 1912. 

published by the commission. 

Springfield. Massachusetts. 







'^ Preface 5 

By the Rt. Rev. Edward Melville Parker, D.D., 
Bishop Coadjutor of New Hampshire. 

Report on the Greeks 13 

^ ^ By the Rev. Thomas Burgess, Saco, Maine. 

Report on the Syrians 27 

By the Rev. Richard Daniel Hatch, Southport, Conn. 

Report on the Slavs 37 

By the Rev. Robert Keating Smith, Westfield, Mass. 

Report on the Armenians 85 

By the Rev. John Higginson Cabot, Boston, ]\Iass. 

Report on the Albanians 97 

By the Rev. Thomas Burgess, Saco, Maine. 

Appendix 107 

Bibliography 115 

^/y- 2 3600 


This is the report in full, of which extracts were read at 
the Department Council of New England in Providence, in 
October, 1912, by the committee appointed to consider the 
work of co-operating with the Eastern Orthodox Churches, 
the Separated Churches of the East, and other Slavs. The 
report has been somewhat expanded and brought up to date. 

Foreigners are pressing into New England in increasing 
numbers, and the Germanic, Scandinavian, and English- 
speaking immigrants are now being succeeded not only by the 
Italians, but by the Greeks, Syrians, and many Slavic peoples 
of Eastern Europe. The problem of dealing with these races 
is no longer a theoretical one, but one that comes into almost 
every one of our home towns in an acute and insistent way. 
Co-operation with these fellow Christians, and a helpful 
ministry to them in this new land, will, we trust, ultimately 
result in the restoration of inter-communion, after centuries 
of separation, between East and West; but the divisions of 
centuries are not remedied in a few months, and there must 
be a large preliminary clearing away of misunderstandings, 
and a great increase of knowledge, before we can deal helpfully 
and practically with this vital home question of the foreigner 
in our New England towns and cities. 

The ignorance of the average American about these latest 
comers to our shores is profound! All Slavs are indifferently 
called Polanders; some, by a strange perversion of facts, are 
called Huns, the name of no Slavic race, but of their oppressors 
in Hungary. Albanians, Greeks, Turks, and Syrians, and 
any other unknown races, are often indifferently termed 
"Dagoes." Russian and Syrian Orthodox Christians are 
called "Greek Catholics," even in official government reports, 
this being the name properly applied to men of the Greek 
race who have submitted to the Papal obedience. Few 
American Christians knoAv whether we are speaking of races 
or religious beliefs when they read the words "Uniat," "Maro- 


nite," ''Slovak," "Monophysite," "Ruthenian," "Jacobite," 
or "Gregorian Armenian." 

This report is an attempt, by a careful account of some 
of the newer races of immigrants, and by a discussion of their 
separate nationalities, to dispel ignorance and inspire interest 
in a pressing New England problem. We hope that it will 
arouse interest in this question, promote further investigations 
by individuals, provoke criticism, invitecorrectionof facts stated, 
and stimulate active work by individuals and congregations. 

The writers of the various reports herein included have 
obtained much of their information from leading men of the 
different races themselves, so that a good part of this work is 
the result of original investigation. 

In general, we would suggest — 

(1) That Churchmen should get an accurate knowlege 
of these different races as they attempt to work for and with 
them; not, for example, attempting the impossible, by trying 
to induce Armenians and Greeks to worship together. 

(2) That they should make a determined effort to establish 
personal relations with individuals. 

(3) That there should be the same sort of effort to get 
a thorough acquaintance with small communities of foreigners, 
to know^ them, and to become known by them. There is a 
special opportunity for patriotic and religious work where 
the foreign communities are small. 

(4) That we should not press inter-communion with the 
members of the Orthodox Eastern Churches, but should 
endeavor to co-operate intelligently, and to avoid anything 
like proselytism, which greatly and justifiably alarms them. 

(5) That we should lend our churches for services by their 
own clergy in their own tongue, making careful efforts to see 
that the priests intrusted with such privileges are those properly 
accredited by their own Church authorities. 

(6) That we should make some effort to teach them individ- 
ually, and in small gatherings, something of the principles 
of American life, df American government, and of patriotism. 
The foreigners should see some of the best of Americans, 
and not, as is too often the case, only the lower and baser 
citizens of this country. 


Lastly, we would suj!;gcst the duty for Christian people 
of earnest prayer for mutual understanding and co-operation. 
These strangers know little of the principles and methods 
of the Anglican Church, and we even less of their ways of 
looking at things and of approaching religious questions. 
There is a real work to be done among some Slavs who are 
breaking away entirely from a rather loose attachment to 
the Roman Church, as well as among the Orthodox, and among 
those who are disturbed and upset by the strange political, 
social, and religious ideas of the community in which they 
find themselves. 

It is, perhaps, well to end this little introduction to the 
report of the Committee of the Missionary Council of the 
Department of New England by the words of a diaconal 
petition which occurs more than once in the Liturgy of St. 
Chrysostom, used in their several languages by all the Orthodox 
and Eastern Christians: — 

"For the welfare of God's holy Churches, and for the 
union of them all, let us pray to the Lord." 


From the New England Council to the Christians 
OF the Balkan States. 

In the Council of New England held in Providence, October 
22 and 23, 1912, the Rev. Robert Keating Smith introduced 
a resolution, seconded b}^ the Bishop of Vermont, expressing 
the sympathy of the Council with the Christians in the Balkan 
war then imminent, on account of the necessary bloodshed 
and loss of life. The resolution was referred to the Committee 
on the Oriental Churches, and Bishop Parker, as chairman 
of the committee, drew up the following letter, which was 
very handsomely engrossed, then signed and sealed by Bishop 
Parker, and sent by registered mail to the four Archbishops 

To the Archbishop and Holy Sj'nod of Athens and our brethren 
of the Holy Orthodox Church of the Kingdom of Greece, 
Grace, Mercy, and Peace from Our Lord Jesus Christ: 

The Bishops, clergy, and lay representatives of the Epis- 
copal Church in that portion of the United States commonly 
called New England, assembled in Council in the city of 
Providence and State of Rhode Island on October twentj- 
third in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and 
twelve, direct me to send to our brethren in Greece, JNIontenegro, 
Servia, and Bulgaria, through their spiritual leaders, an expres- 
sion of warm and earnest sympathy. 

We desire to tell j^ou of our fervent hope that God will 
guide your counsels and aid your efforts for the welfare of 
your and our fellow Christians. Our warmest sympathy 
goes out to the wounded, the sick, and the dying, and to those 
who mourn for the dead, and to our sympathy we join our 
earnest prayers that by God's mercy the strife of battle may 
soon end, and that lasting peace may be given to you and 
to the world. 

The Council of the whole of our American Branch of 
God's Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church does not meet 
for many months, and so in our smaller gathering to plan 
for the work of God in our separate dioceses and in the group 
which they form, we hasten to express to you our feeling 
of fellowship in your sufferings and our prayers for your peace. 

Signed for the Council of the Episcopal Church in the 


dioceses of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Kliode Island, Ver- 
mont, New Huniptihirc, Maine, and Western Massachusetts, 
and by its order, 

Edward IVIelville Parker, 
Bishop Coadjutor of New Hampshire. 

Identical letters were sent to: — 

The Most Reverend the Exarch of Bulgaria, and our 
brethren of the Holy Orthodox Church of the Kingdom of 

The Archbishop of Belgrade and Metropolitan of All 
Servia, and our brethren of the Holy Orthodox Church of 
the Kingdom of Servia, 

The Metropolitan of Scanderia and the Seacoast, Arch- 
bishop of Cetinje, Exarch of the Holy Throne of Ipek, and 
our brethren of the Holy Orthodox Church of the Kingdom 
of Montenegro. 

Written in English by His Grace. 

Constantinople, 8-21 December, 1912. 
To the Right Reverend Edward IMelville Parker, Bishop 
Coadjutor of Xew Hampshire, and to our Beloved Breth- 
ren in Christ of the Council of the Episcopal Church 
in the dioceses of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and Western 
Massachusetts, in NeAv England, United States of 

Right Reverend Sir and Beloved Brethren in Christ, 
grace, mercy, and peace from God and Our Lord Jesus Christ 
with your spirit: 

W^e are exceedingly moved by the excellent Christian 
expressions of sincere sympathy, which you have transmitted 
to us by the direction of the Honorable Council of your 
American Branch of God's Holy Catholic and Apostolic 
Church, of October twenty-third of the current year, on the 
occasion of contemporaneous events transpiring among us, 
when in heroic struggle for sweet libertj^ not a few of our 
brethren and children of our Holy Church have evinced the 
highest degree of love by laying down their lives for their 
neighbors. Likewise for the wounded and for the sick and 
the dying, as well as for all those who sorrow and mourn for 
the fallen on the field of battle in defence of the Faith of the 
Holy Cross and of their Fatherland, your sympathy is a work 

of God's comforting love, which from strength unto strength 
powerfully strengthens the patient enduring of sufferings for 
high and sacred ideals in the Name of the One Divine Sufferer 
for the salvation of all. 

In expressing to you the feelings raised in all of us by 
your honorable brotherly message, We, in the name of our 
Holy Church and all the Bulgarian nation, present to you 
our highest esteem, and beg you to accept the expression 
of our warm and hearty gratitude for the sympathy you 
express with the trials which our nation is passing through, 
and for your united prayers to God's mercy for the end of 
the war and for a lasting peace with us and throughout the 
whole world. At the same time we express our unswerving 
confidence that God, in His all-kind Providence, will deign 
to hear from Heaven and will fulfill our and your mutual 
fervent prayers to Him for the glory of His most Holy Name 
unto the ages. 

Owing to temporary difficulties of communication and to 
other circumstances which cause delay in our communications 
with the administration of our Holy Church in the kingdom 
of Bulgaria, we are sorry that it is not possible for us to do 
in time what depends upon us, in order that to your highly 
honored message a befitting publicity should be given among 
the children of our whole Church; but we are sending to-day, 
together with the present, your original message to the Holy 
Synod of our Holy Church in the Kingdom of Bulgaria, request- 
ing them to take the necessary measures in the above-mentioned 
very desirable intent. 

>i< Bulgarian Exarch: Joseph. 


Consistory of Cetinje. 

No. 1767. Cetinje, December 7th, 1912. 

His Lordship, Sir Edward Melville Parker, 

Bishop of New Hampshire. 
Your Lordship: 

A great rejoicing was evoked in me and in my God-protected 
flock by your brotherly-loving message of October 23d, Our 
Lord's year 1912, which your Lordship pleased to address to my 
name from yourself and from your Council of bishops, clergy, 
and representatives of the Holy Episcopal Church of the United 
States of America. 


Your message is deeply imbued with feelings of Christian 
love towards our brave troops and our sacred cause in struggling 
against the five-century-old enemy of Christianity and civili- 
zation on the Balkan Peninsula. Your and your holy Council's 
great sympathy, which, in our present fate-bearing days, you 
were pleased to bestow upon us, gives us moral strength to 
complete with a greater energy the holy action of the Crusade. 
This love of yours towards us flows out from the divine 
teaching of Christ the Saviour, who has said: "This is My 
commandment, that ye have love between j'ourselves as I have 
love towards you" (John XV, 12). 

You, your Lordship, and your enlightened Council, uniting 
your holy praj-ers with those of ours, force upon us a well- 
grounded confidence that the Heavenly Creator will fulfill these 
our united prayers that the fighting be crowned with success 
for our just cause, resulting in the final victory of Christianity 
over Islam, and the attainment of the universal peace desired 
by all civilized peoples. 

You and your holy Council, enlightened by the Evangelic 
teaching, have not been kept by the expanse of the Great Atlantic 
Ocean from uniting your holy prayers with ours, which is a 
proof that our Churches have one and the same Invisible Head 
in Heaven, the Great Head-Shepherd, Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and that we all are members of Christ's Church, as it is said in 
the Holy Scriptures: "One Lord, one faith, one baptism, one 
God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and 
in us all" (Ephes. IV, 5-6). 

Deeply thanking your Lordship and your holy Council for 
your love and sympathy towards us and our holj' cause, we 
warmly entrust ourselves to you, that in the future you retain 
toward us the same inclination which you have been pleased to 
show us hitherto. 

I beg that j'ou, your Lordship, will please accept this 
expression of my deep esteem, and will convey the same to the 
holy Council. 

This is an especial honor for me, that I maj' call myself your 
Lordship's Brother in Christ, 

(Signed) Metropolitan of Montenegro: 


This letter is a literal translation into Fnglish by the Very Reverend 
Archpriest Benedict J. Turkevich, of the North American Ecclesiastical 
Consistory of the Russian Church. 








in U. S. 

Number in 
New Eng. 


Eastern Orthodox 






Eastern Orthodox 














Roman Catholic 






Roman Catholic 






Roman Catholic 
Protestant (Luth.) 
Eastern Orthodox 
Protestant (Calv.) 










Roman Catholic 
Protestant (Luth.) 





Roman Catholic 
Old Catholic 
Protestant (Luth.) 





Great Russians 

Eastern Orthodox 




Very few- 

White Russians 

Eastern Orthodox 




Very few 

Little Russians 

Eastern Orthodox 






Roman Catholic 






Roman Catholic 






Eastern Orthodox 






Eastern Orthodox 






Eastern Orthodox 


Roman Catholic 








Roman Catholic 
Protestant (Calv.) 
Protestant (Unit.) 






Roman Catholic 
Eastern Orthodox 
Protestant (Luth.) 






Protestant (Luth.) 
Roman Catholic 
Eastern Orthodox 






Armenian Church 



' 12,000 


Eastern Orthodox 
Roman Catholic 







By the Rev. Thomas Burgess, Saco, Maine. 


To api)r(H'iat(' the Greek of to-day it i.s necessary, more 
than witli any other immigrant raee in America, to know his 
history. Tlie Greek has a continuous history of about three 
thousand years. For longevity and continuity of race no other 
people save the Hebrew can compare with him, and even 
he must yield in point of language. Modern Greek, as it is 
written, is as much like ancient Greek as modern English 
is like Chaucer. The modern Greek kingdom and the modern 
Greek people are literally steeped in the history of their race: it 
is drummed into the schoolchildren; their talk and newspapers 
are filled with historical allusions; their church services breathe 
o-f the Fathers and the Byzantine Empire; their very language 
is being made more classical by legal enactment. Go into 
a Greek coffee house or shoe shine "parlor" in any of our 
New England cities, and you wull probably see on the walls 
rude chromos depicting the history of Greece all the way 
from the Age of Pericles to the military revolution of 1909; 
pictures of the Parthenon, Alexander the Great, the Areopagus, 
the cathedral of St. Sophia; sometimes a complete gallery 
on one sheet of the Byzantine emperors from Constantine I 
to Constantine XII; the heroes of the Greek War of Independ- 
ence; and the University of Athens of to-day. 

Of ancient Greece every educated American knows the 
history up to the time of St. Paul. For the first three centuries 
of Christianity the growing Church was slowly leavening the 
decadent Hellenic civilization into real strength, till we find 
in the time of Constantine the Great, that the East had become 
for the most part Christian with a powerful church organization, 
while the West remained for the most part heathen. 

The story of the Hellenic race from 330 to 1453, the Eastern 
Empire, is one of the grand sections of world history which 
has been sadly neglected by modern English-speaking scholars, 
and the principal blame for this may be found in the scathing 
pen of the brilliant and godless Gibbon. As a matter of 
truth, the tale of the much maligned Byzantine Empire, 
which ever remained Greek in its characteristics and aspira- 
tions, is a history of the center of civilization for one 
thousand years. While the barbarian hordes of the West, 
which had swept away the ancient civilization of old Rome, 
and were bound together only by the rising power of the 
papacy, were contending for existence, the mighty empire 


of New Rome preserved culture and civilization and the 
Christian faith intact, and for ten centuries, longer than 
any other dynasty, beat back Goth, Hun, Vandal, Slav, 
Persian, Saracen, Bulgar, Magyar, Seljuk, and Ottoman Turk. 
She, the bulwark of Europe, stood bravely on the defensive 
through the shifting shocks of a thousand years and saved 
Europe till Europe was strong enough to save herself. Toward 
the end she was ruined by the traitor stroke of the Latin 
invaders of the Fourth Crusade. Three centuries more she 
struggled on, and died fighting, and St. Sophia, greatest of 
Christian churches, became a mosque, as it is this day. Then 
she handed on to youthful Europe the culture she had preserved 
and the Renaissance, Hellenic in its foundations, came into 
being. The cause of the longevity of the Eastern Empire 
was its superior moralitj', and the motive power of the empire 
was the Orthodox Church. All these are big assertions, I 
realize, but they are absolutely true to history. This neglected 
section of history should be given far greater space in our 
colleges and seminaries. The history of the Middle Ages is 
far more than, as is so often taught, a mere history of the rise 
of the papacy. The Dark Ages of the East — and the East 
means in fundamentals Christian Hellenism — did not begin 
till 1453. Unless we realize all this we cannot appreciate 
the proud claims of the Modern Greek, nor understand the 
Eastern Orthodox Church. 

For the next four centuries the Greek was ground down 
with worse than slavery by "the unspeakable Turk"; the 
Greek Church alone kept alive the spark of patriotism and 
education, and the Modern Greek will never forget his incal- 
culable debt to his Church. 

In 1821 began the seven years' struggle for freedom, which 
roused the American nation to active sympathy. Americans 
may now have forgotten, but the Greeks have not, the mes- 
sages and speeches of President Monroe, Daniel Webster, 
Henry Clay. The Greeks remember the heroic deeds of 
American Philhellenes in Greece and America, chiefest of 
whom stands Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe, whose services to 
Greece were greater than even those of Lord Byron, and 
they do not forget the unassuming labors of that second 
foreign missionary of our American Church, the Rev. John 
Henry Hill. Dr. Hill, with our first missionary, the Rev. Dr. 
Robertson, established the first schools in Athens for both 
sexes, and, supported by Mrs. Hill for fifty years, till his 
death, labored in Greece, giving the start and model to all 
the girls' schools of Greece, never proselytizing (such were 
his strict orders from our Board of Missions), honored and 


upheld by all Orooks, govoninirnt , Church, and people. This 
work was financed by our lioard of Missions till 1898. 

(Jreece became free ii\ 1828 — a land utterly despoiled by 
the rava}j;es of the terrible Ibrahim Pasha. But the benifru 
Po\V(>rs allowed her only one third of the territory fouf^ht for, 
and one fifth of tlie Clreek people who struggled for liberty, 
sent her a tactless boy king who for forty years retarded 
the kingilom's progress, loatled iier with a hopeless debt, 
and have ever since treated iiei- with a like selfishness of diplo- 
matic coquetry. 

Not till 1862, with King George's accession, did true con- 
stitutional freedom and real progress begin in Greece. Since 
then remarkable strides have been made, despite the endless 
turmoil of jioliticians and the constant changes in the ministry. 
This factional strife, though characteristic of the Greeks 
ancient and modern, has been largely the result of the narrowed 
confines of the kingdom, where every Greek, whether he live 
in Turkey or Asia or elsewhere, has the privilege of citizenship, 
and the right of free education at the University of Athens. 
Thus the political professions have been ridiculously over- 
stocked, and Athens has more newspapers than New York. 
The present kingdom comprises in the north but a part of 
Thessaly and a scrap of Epirus, and also but a part of the 
iEgean archipelego. Crete, after seven revolutions and ter- 
rible masacres of Christians, was tardily allowed autonomy, 
but not annexation, in 1898. 

In our judgment of Modern Greece we must never fail 
to take into account the tremendous handicaps she has had 
to face, chiefest among which has been the lack of sympathy 
and support from Christian Europe. Greece has become 
known to English readers largely through the unfair prejudice 
of some English writers. 

Athens of to-day represents the acme of civic pride. Its 
nearest approach to slums are of white marble. The city is 
remarkably free from beggars, criminal classes, rowdj'ism, 
drunkenness, and freer than any city of Europe or America 
from allurements to sexual vice. Her educational and phil- 
anthropic institutions are excellent. As she has been the 
center of Greek culture for three generations, so has she been 
the generous asylum for the many refugees from Moslem 

Wealthy Greeks the world over have vied with each other 
to embellish their fatherland and provide for the education 
of their compatriots, and the poorer Greeks banded into 
societies all over America and elsewhere are also continually 
sending home contributions. 


Wealthy Greek mercantile houses, chief among which are 
the famous Ralli Brothers, are found in everj^ commercial 
center of the world; Greeks have long constituted the majority 
of the financial and professional and foreign diplomatic class 
of the Turkish Empire; Greek scholars occupy chairs in a 
number of the universities of Europe; and Greek immigrants 
of all classes may be found, Odysseus like, in every corner 
of the world. 

Greece has her fully organized public school system, free 
from the cleme school through the university, — and the Bible, 
the Catechism, and Church History are required parts of 
the curriculum. 

The independent or autocephalous Church of the kingdom 
of Greece is headed, as in the Russian Church, by a Holy 
Synod, whose president is the Metropolitan of Athens. There 
are many well educated Greek bishops and priests, but the 
education of the country parish priests has been sadly neglected, 
though this condition is being bettered. 

"Enslaved Greece," — Epirus, southern Macedonia, and the 
northern and eastern islands and littoral of the JEgean, in 
which the majority of the population are Greek, — is under 
the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople (who 
since 1453 has been invested with his authority and deposed 
at will by the Mohammedan Sultan). In "Enslaved Greece" 
much educational and philanthropic work is carried on through 
Greek benevolence. 

The population of the little curtailed kingdom is, in round 
numbers, 2,500,000. In Turkish dominions and elsewhere 
there are some 10,000,000 more Greeks. 

Outside of Athens, Greece is made up for the most part 
of villages scattered throughout the jagged mountains, countless 
inlets, and the islands. Nearly every one lives in his own 
house. About 70 per cent are engaged in agricultural, pas- 
toral, and other "unskilled" pursuits. Every town and 
hamlet has its church or churches, and many a mountain top 
its saint's chapel and sometimes its monastery. Practically 
all Greeks are Eastern Orthodox, and the Roman propaganda 
and Protestant proselytism have made scarcely any impression. 
The Greeks love their Church, and love to celebrate her fes- 
tivals, and the parish priest is a man of much influence in his 
village. In fact, patriotism and orthodoxy are inseparably 
bound together in the heart of the Greek- — though patriotism 
is, generally speaking, the motive power rather than religion. 
"Superstitious, bound in formalism," the country folk have 
been called, nevertheless, in contrast to Americans in general, 
their practice of religion is an intimate part of their daily 


life; the layman has liis inqiortant share in church ornuiiization; 
nor are tliey ashamed to talk religion, nor their daily news- 
papers to write it; and men are ever in tlic majority at their 
Eucharists. Moreover their Church has hrmly taught the 
true foundation of society, for the saeredness and indissolu- 
hilily of the marriage tic, the supreme honor and <luty of 
motlierhood and fatherhood, and the unerring devotion to 
family among the Greeks put Americans to shame. 

The primary causes of emigration from the kingdom 
of Greece to America were purely economic, as there is no 
religious or social oppression in that cradle of democracy, 
and as for the compulsory army or navy service, every Greek 
regards that with patriotic enthusiasm. About 1891 emigra- 
tion began to our country' from Greece, because of financial 
depression. Since then the stream has grown to remarkable 
dimensions (averaging, annually for the past six years over 
30,000), induced by the all too glowing letters from Greeks 
in America and also by the agents of steamship lines, and 
once the stream started it could not be stopped. The first 
emigrants went from the highlands of Arcadia, and then 
by leaps and bounds the outpouring spread all through free 
Greece and into enslaved Greece. 

From "enslaved Greece," especially Macedonia and Epirus, 
a large amount of emigration has been induced, during 
the past five or six years since the Turkish constitution was 
adopted, by the barbarous Turkish oppression. 

The Greek immigrants in America come in the majority 
of cases from the peasant classes, though there are also a 
number from the professional class. Their literacy is very 
high, in fact nearly all Greeks in America can read their Greek 
newspapers, written in excellent Greek, and do so daily with 
devouring avidity. The Greek immigrant is, of all the races 
from Southeastern Europe, the most intelligent, quick-witted, 
versatile and keen in business, clannish, proud, and patriotic. 
Their criminal record is remarkably low; they are practically 
free from drunkenness; they rarely carry concealed weapons; 
if they go out on strikes, they do it through their own regular 
organizations, and peacefully, for in their clannishness, they 
care naught for labor unions nor the I. W. W.; practically 
never do Greek paupers have to be cared for by our cities 
or benevolent institutions, as the Greek organizations 
philanthropically look after their own needy; what sexual 
immorality they show, is largely the result, not of their puri- 
tanical home training, but of the low American environment, 
and the fact that so many are lonely men awa}' from family 
ties. Yet the family life is fast increasing, and Greek weddings, 


almostinvariably of Greek with Greek, are of weekly occurrence. 
Often crimes and quarrels of other foreigners are erroneously 
credited to the Greeks. 

There are about 250,000 Greeks in America — not as many 
as some of the other recent immigrant races, but more evenly 
distributed. In fact, it is possible to state that there is not 
a city or town of any size in the United States where there 
are not at least two or three Greeks. The following graphically 
shows the even distribution: — 

New England • • . 44,800 

New York to Maryland inclusive 54,900 

(New York City has 20,000 of these.) 

- South of Maryland and the Ohio River 24,000 

Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, IMichigan, and Wis- 
consin 51,300 

(Chicago has 20,000 of these.) 

West of the Mississippi to the Pacific States 48,600 

The three Pacific States 29,000 

Candy and fruit stores, shoe shine ''parlors," and restau- 
rants are their chief occupation everywhere; many work as 
waiters, etc., in our hotels. Thousands are employed in 
factories, especially in New England. In the great West 
there are thousands of railroad construction laborers, w^ho 
crowd, during the winter months, into the cities to pass the 
time in baneful idleness. In the South are many Greek 
restaurants, and there especially, where the Greeks are not 
herded together as they are in our industrial centers and 
western cities, they enter more into American life. 

The Greeks in America are highly organized, perhaps 
over-organized. In fact, their greatest fault, even as it was 
in ancient Greece, is their bitter factional jealousies; these 
are, however, wars of words by tongue and newspaper, not 
by knives. Often they have carried their wrangles into the 
American courts. Of late this factional spirit seems to be 
on the wane. 

Many of the colonies of 500 or over are organized into 
Communities, officially named, "The Greek Orthodox Com- 
munity of ." These are sometimes incorporated under 

the State laws. Their principal object is to establish and 
maintain a church organization. It is like our own vestry 
system, but without, thus far, a bishop in America. Dr. H. K. 
Carroll reports, for the year 1912, 70 organized churches with 
175,000 members. 

They have many benevolent societies, also athletic, mil- 
itary, and other clubs. There are (the number is decreasing) 


various socirtios of tlic (Jrccks in a colony from one particu- 
lar provinco or island or town, which iiclp support the churches 
and schools of their home land, and care for their people here. 
There are two bitterly rival daily newspapers in New York, 
circulating all over the United States, and many weekly and 
scmiweekly pa])ers in various places. There arc excellent 
bookstores, and the Greeks are great readers. 
■ A few years ago the Pan-Hellenic Union, a national organ- 
ization, was started for the Greeks of America. The idea 
was originated by that greatest of Greeks in America son- 
in-law of Samuel Gridley and Julia AVard Howe, the world- 
famed director of the Perkins Institution for the BHnd in 
Boston, IMichael Anagnos, whose name is revered by every- 
Greek in America, and who was himself once a poor Epirote 
shepherd boy. The Pan-Hellenic Union is headed by cultured 
and wealthy Greek directors of commercial houses, Greek 
physicians, and others, and has as its executive manager 
since a year ago, a famous Greek statesman and scholar, 
Const an tine Papamichalopoulos, who came here for this 
noble purpose. Its present headquarters are in Boston. 
It has spread all over the United States, especially in New 
England. Its objects are to unite, care for, and better the 
conditions of the Greeks of America. You may recognize 
itc members by their white button, with the doul)le-headedj 
eagle in blue and gold. 

A few Greek schools, with American as well as Greek 
teachers, have been established in which, as in Greece, religion 
is not left out. The two in New England are in Lowell and 

The Greek clergy in America — about half married and 
half monastic unmarried priests — are under the jurisdiction 
of the Holy Synod of Athens. They greatly need a bishop. 
Some are well educated, some are not. The parishes are far 
too large, and many of the priests seem to lack true missionary 
zeal, and have become imbued with the spirit of commercialism. 
The absence of any bishop and the complete control of parishes 
by the community committees have made possible unfortu- 
nate divisions in some places, as at present in Boston. There 
are also some Greek priests in America who have come without 
the authority of their bishops, who, underbidding the priests 
of rightful authority, breed disturbances. There are probably 
enough Greek priests in New England for emergency calls, 
as baptisms, marriages, and funerals; but certainly not enough 
to minister to the sick and dying, nor for anything like proper 
pastoral care of the well. Especially is this true in the many 
towns where there are but handfuls of Greeks. 


The Greeks are fairly faithful in church attendance, and 
their fasts and confessions and communions are not neglected; 
especially do they flock to church on the great feast days. 
The younger immigrants, however, are learning the American 
non-churchgoing habit. The Greek clergy are friendly to 
our clergy, and all Greeks look with a certain favor on our 
American Church, and generally understand her catholic and 
non-proselytizing position. Protestant proselytizing they have 
learned in Greece to abhor. When they do attend Protestant 
churches, and our churches too, for that matter, it is usually 
for the sake of familiarizing themselves with the English 
language. Of the Church of Rome they will have naught, 
nor will they in any way affiliate with the Orthodox churches 
under the Russian hierarchy of New York, for the sad antag- 
onism of Pan-Slavism and Pan-Hellenism is as rife in America 
as it is in the East. 

The condition of the Greeks is, speaking broadly, rather 
worse in New England than in other parts of the country, 
except among the railroad laborers of the West, because there 
are so many engaged in uncongenial occupations here crowded 
together. For convenience they may be divided in New 
England into three principal classes: (1) Those herded 
in our textile centers, in miserable slum lodgings, banded 
clannishly together, hearing Greek spoken almost exclusively, 
with their .own Greek shops and coffee houses, amid the dregs 
of our population. The majority of these are mill hands, 
working at tasks and hours to which they were wholly unaccus- 
tomed and under conditions they never expected to find. 
(2) Those members of the same colonies, who with their 
characteristic ability for business run candy stores, shoe shine 
places, and others, for American customers; these comprise 
the better class of the colonies and have been in this country 
longer than the mill hands. (3) The thousands scattered 
in little groups away from their countrymen, and so in close 
touch with American life, found in every town of any size 
in New England. Then there are also a few Greek students 
in our colleges and schools, most of whom came here as poor 
immigrants, who generally prove themselves brilliant scholars. 
There are of course also the few Greek gentlemen of refinement, 
directors of commercial houses, physicians, and others, who 
with the unfailing Greek idealism and democratic spirit are 
doing their utmost for the uplift of their immigrant com- 

One important and misunderstood factor in Greek immi- 
gration to America is, that it is a permanent migration. They 
have come here to stay. True, probably most intend to 


ri'turn, wlicii tlu'y start lor America, uiul many do return; 
nevertheless these last find that life in Greece is no longer 
possible for them, ami they i)ractieally always eome back 
again to America. 1 believe it is safe to assert that most 
of those who have lately sailed for Greece, with unhesitating 
and characteristic patriotism, to conquer the Turk, will come 
back when the war is over, if they survive. 

The Greeks in America are a people who ought to prove 
beneficial to our country, because of their commercial ability, 
and of certain characteristic high ideals. Their patriotism 
for Greece is not a detriment to their becoming good American 
citizens, but rather an asset. They come here imbued with 
a high regard for our Republic and our people, remembering 
with gratitude the American Philhellenes of their revolutionary 
days and since. It is for us to cease looking down on them, 
and to strive to eradicate the causes for which they learn 
to look down on us. It is for us to try^to understand and 
make others understand their aspirations and their good 
qualities, and to help by sympathy and friendliness to avert 
the development of their bad qualities. 


C means organized community and resident 
Ch means Church building. (Where there is no church, 
a hall is hired.) 


Biddeford and Saco (C) 500 

Lewiston and Auburn (C) 500 

Westbrook and Portland 200 

Augusta 100 

Waterville 100 

Scattered 400 1,800 

New Hampshire 

Manchester (C, Ch) 3,500 

Nashua {C, Ch) 2.000 

Dover 500 

Scattered 2,000 8,000 


Scattered 500 500 


Lowell iCCh) 8,000 

Boston (C, C/j), (C)... 3,000 


Lynn (C) 2,000 

Haverhill (C) 2,000 

Pcabody (C) 1,000 

New Bedford (C) 800 

Ipswich {C,Ch) 500 

Springfield (C) 500 

AVorcester 900 

Clinton 500 

Holyoke 500 

Fitehburg 500 

Brockton 300 

Salem 500 

Scattered 10,000 31,000 

Rhode Islatid 

Providence {C,Ch) 600 

Pawtucket 400 

Scattered ■ 300 1,300 


Ansonia 300 

Bridgeport 300 

New Britain 200 

Norwich 200 

Stamford 200 

Scattered 800 2,000 


Greeks in America. By Rev. Thomas Burgess, Illus- 
trated. Giving a full historical and ecclesiastical treatment 
as well as an account of the immigrants. In preparation. 
(Price, about SI. 50.) 

Greek American Guide and Business Directory for 
1912. By S. G. Canoutas (500 pages). In Greek except 
the directory, but very valuable to Americans for its pictures 
and for this directory, giving in English, by state and city, 
addresses, etc., of the churches, clergy, business men, etc., 
etc., of the Greeks of the whole United States. May be 
obtained from G. N. Helmis, 158 W. 23d Street, New York. 

Books (ecclesiastical, pocket lexicons, etc., etc., in Modern 
Greek) and pictures may be obtained from either of the 
following Greek bookstores in New York City, which will 
send their catalog on request. 

"Atlas," 25 Madison Street. 

"Atlantis," 113-117 W. 31st Street. 


"Atlantis" ])ul)lislics an excellent illnstiated jnnnthly 
nia^a/inc in (!reek. Piice, S'J.OO. 

The lumtcrn and W'cslcni Ix'tricn', a \alnalile illustrated 
montlily, is published in English by a Cireok, T. 'V. 'I'iinayenis,- 
24 Milk Street, Boston. Price, $1.00. 

Modern Gkeek Method. By Rizo-Rangabe. The most 
practical niethotl for studying Modern (Ireek. ((iinn cV: Co., 
Boston, 189G.) 

The following carefully selected list is taken from the 
bibliograjihy on ''Greeks in America," and was prepared 
with the assistance of Prof. J. Irving Manatt of I^rown Uni- 
versity, former U. S. Consul at Athens, who furnished most 
of the descriptive notes. 

Seven Essays on Christian Greece. By Demetrios 
Bikelas. Translated by the [Marquis of Bute. Compre- 
hensive view from the beginning of the Byzantine Empire 
to the present day from a Greek's standpoint. A. Gardiner, 
London, 1890. Price, $3.00. 

Historical Essays. (Several of the 3d and 4th Series.) 
By E. A. Freeman, the great historian. Macmillan Co., 
New York. 

The Byzantine Empire, "the rear guard of Europe." 
By E. A. Foord. Black, London, 1911. 

History of Greece, 146 B. C.-1864 A. D. (7 vols.). By 
George Finlay. The classical English histor}^ of Mediaeval 
and Modern Greece. The first two volumes have been pul)- 
lished in "Everyman's Library." 

War of Greek Independence. By W. Alison Phillips. 
A good short history. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1897. 

An Historical Sketch of the Greek Revolution. 
By Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe. Valuable first-hand story 
of the holy struggle in which the author had a noble part. 
New York, 1828. 

Life of Samuel G. Howe. By F. B. Sanborn. First 
biography of Dr. HoAve, by his best friend. Roberts Brothers. 

Letters and Journals of Samuel Gridley Howe 
(2 vols.). By Laura E. Richards. Dana Estes & Co., Boston, 

Greece in the Nineteenth Century. By Lewis Ser- 
geant. Best work on the subject from a Philhellenic stand- 
point. T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1897. 

Lectures on Ancient and ^Modern Greece. By C. C. 
Felt on (President of Harvard). Boston, 1867. 

The Greeks of To-day. By Charles K. Tuckerman. 
Still one of the best books on the subject. Putnam & Sons, 
New York, 1873. 


Modern Greece. By Sir R. C. Jebb. Excellent short 
sketch. Price, $1.75. 

Rambles and Studies in Greece. By John P. Mahaffy. 
One of the best books from a classical modern standpoint. 
Price, S1.50. 

Helladian Vistas. By Rev. Don Daniel Quinn, Ph.D. 
University of Athens (a Roman Catholic priest). Most 
sympathetic study of. the Modern Greeks by one who knows 
them intimately. Yellow Springs, Ohio, 3d edition, 1910. 
Price, $1.25. 

The Islands of the ^Egean. By Rev. H. F. Tozer. 
Oxford, 1890. 

The Cyclades: Life among the Insular Greeks. By 
J. Theodore Bent. Longmans, London, 1885. 

The Living Greeks. By J. Irving Manatt. In Ameri- 
can Review of Reviews, 11: 398. 

A Caravan Tour of the Peloponnese. By J. Irving 
Manatt. In the Chautauquan, June, 1901. 

A Cruise in the JiIgean. By J. Irving Manatt. In 
the Chautauquan, April, 1901. 

Tales from a Greek Island. By Mrs. Julia D. Dragou- 
mis. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1911. 

In Argolis. By George Horton. Fascinating little sketch 
of Greek life bj^ an ex-counsul at Athens, now consul-general 
at Salonica. 

Modern Athens. By George Horton. A shght but 
vivid sketch. 

Isles and Shrines of Greece. By Samuel J. Barrows. 
An excellent book by a warm friend of the Greeks. Boston, 

Greek Lands and Letters. By F. G. and A. C. E. 
AUinson. A charming book for the classical scholar. It 
aims to interpret Greek lands and literature and to steep the 
literature in local color. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1907. 

Monograph on the one hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of Samuel Gridley Howe. 

Memorial of Michael Anagnos (1837-1906). A volume 
with biography and memorial addresses, etc. Boston, 1907. 

(These last two are obtainable from the Perkins Institution 
for the Blind, Watertown, Mass.) 



By the Rev. Richard Daniel Hatch, Southport, Conn. 


Tlio jioople boarinp; this name are doscondants of the 
ancient Syrians, Araljs, Turks, and Jews. Speaking senorally 
the Syrians belong to the Eastern Orthodox Ciiurch. Excep- 
tions to this are the Melchites, found principally at Aleppo 
and Damascus, their Patriarch residing at the latter place; 
and the Maronites, a mountaineer tribe. There are said 
to be between 30,000 and 40,000 of the Melchites, and between 
200,000 and 250,000 of the Maronitcs. The latter have a 
patriarch who lives at Canubin, and who is the Roman Catholic 
Patriarch of Antioch. The Druses, another mountain tribe, 
are Mohammedan. 

The language generally spoken is Arabic, though the old 
Syriac is used by the Xestorians, and the Assyrians or Chaldeans 
of Kurdistan. There are not many of this variety of Syrian 
in this country; most of those who have been visiting us to 
collect money for their institutions at home seem to be of 
their number. They originated with Nestorius of Antioch, 
who became Patriarch of Constantinople in 428, and was 
condemned for heresy concerning the nature of Christ at 
the Council of Ephesus. In 435 the Nestorians took refuge 
from persecution in Mesopotamia, assuming the title of 
Chaldean Christians, About 20,000 were made Uniats by 
Rome in the 16th century. The others number 150,000. 
Another division of Christians is called the Jacobite or Old 
Syrian Church. The bulk of them inhabit Mesopotamia, 
only about one tenth being found in Syria. They derive 
their name ostensibly from the Apostle St. James, but really 
from Jacob Baradai, who became Bishop of Edessa in 541. 
He assumed charge of the Monophysites in the East. In 
Syria to-day these people are a mere handful and very poor. 
Derived from this body are the Syrian Uniats, who style 
themselves "The Syrian Catholics." They are the result 
of efforts made to Romanize the Jacobites as early as the 
14th century. These are the main divisions of Christians 
found in the old country. With the numerous sects of 
Mohammedanism they made Syria truly a sect-ridden land. 

The position of the AngHcan Church in Syria is not one 
of proselyting but of education and spiritual co-operation. 
The work of Bishop Blythe in Jerusalem is well known. His 
title is Bishop of the Church of England in Jerusalem and 
the East. He represents the Anglican Church among other 


Catholic communions in Jerusalem, and, with 62 priests of 
the Church of England, looks out for the spiritual interests 
of English people in the East, including Egypt. In addition 
to this there is a collegiate school for boys in Jerusalem, and 
a hospital in Haifa, patronized chiefly by Syrians. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury has a Mission to the Assyrian 
Christians, whose object is stated to be "not to bring over 
these Christians to the communion of the Church of England, 
nor to alter their ecclesiastical customs and traditions, nor 
to change any doctrines held bj' them which are not contrary 
to that Faith which the Holy Spirit has taught as necessary 
to be beheved by all Christians, but to encourage them in 
bettering their rehgious condition, and to strengthen an 
ancient Church," The Mission has a seminary and schools 
in Kurdistan, and the native clergy of the Chaldean Church 
are there obtaining an education. It is from this Mission 
that the genuine Chaldean priests and deacons obtained 
their letters introducing them to the clergy of the American 
Church. The Syrian impostors who of late have exploited 
the United States came from the same region and imitated 
their methods, but they may have been Mohammedan or 
Uniat laymen. 


Mr. N. M. Diab, editor of Meraat-ul-Gharh ("Mirror 
of the West"), the Syrian paper published in New York 
City at 93 Washington Street, states that the Syrians are 
well scattered throughout New England and number about 
20,000. The largest colonies are at Lawrence, 6,000; Boston, 
5,000; Worcester, 2,000; Springfield, Mass., 1,000; Providence, 
R. I., 1,500. The figures include surrounding towns, especially 
in the case of Springfield and Providence, the latter including 

The colonies in Maine are small. At Lewiston 50 are 
reported, divided into ten families. Nine of these attend 
the Greek service and one family attends the Roman Catholic 
Church. Nearly all the men here are peddlers, very few work- 
ing in the mills, as is the case with the Greeks. Portland 
has fully 100, many being peddlers. There are 200 in Water- 
ville, variously employed. Small settlements are said to exist 
at Bangor, Fort Fairfield, St. Francis, Millinocket, and a few 
other towns. The majority of those in Maine are Maronites. 
For the above data I am indebted to Mr. G. L. Foss of the 
Lewiston Journal. The peddler instinct seems very strong 
in the Syrians and is well illustrated in Portland. In that 


cit>- tlicic arr lil'tcm (li\\- i^oods stores whose proprietors are 
from a single villafi;c in Lebanon and all have a tine reputation 
anionji tlic business men of Tort land. Of the two partners 
in each of these firms oni' keeps store, ami the other ^oes 
al)out thr()ug;h the farniinji; communities with a (lei)artment 
wa{i;on. 1 should say that the majority of the Syrians in 
Maine are Maronites (Komanists), tiie remaimh-r hein<^ mostly 
C)rthodox, excepting a few Protestants and Moslems. 

Wlien we turn to the other New England states we find 
a greater tendency to go into the mills. 

The only colonies I have discovered in New Ilamii.-hire 
are at Nashua and Manchester. I have been told that in 
neither place arc they very large and at both cities there are 
many of the Orthodox faith. In Vermont there is a settlement 
at Burlington (including Winooski, a mill village near by) 
nund)ering about 150. The greater number of this colony 
are IVIaronites from ]\Iount Le])anon. They are all imder 
the Rev. Elias Hendy, who is subject to the Roman bishop. 
Father Hendy acknowledges only about 10 as Orthodox and says 
all alike attend his Mass. This priest was brought over from 
Syria through the instrumentality of the Roman bishop. 
Here is illustrated the fact that where there is a small minority 
it often, for a while at least, conforms to the majority. At 
Willimantic, Conn., it is the other way around. The minority 
there are Roman and they attend the Episcopal Church as 
well as, or better than, the Orthodox, even going to confession 
and receiving communion there. The Orthodox there and 
elsewhere have been told to attend our services but not to 
communicate. Last year, however, the attitude of the present 
Syrian Orthodox bishop in America changed, and he no longer 
wishes his people to attend our services. He has withdrawn 
his request that our clergy minister to Orthodox Syrians 
in emergencies. There are, without doubt, other Syrians in 
New Hampshire and Vermont scattered here and there but 
I could get no further information regarding them. 

When we come to Massachusetts we find them in very 
much greater numbers. Included in the number given for 
Springfield is a colony at Chicopee of 200, among whom the 
Presbyterians have been very active. Also near Springfield, 
over the Connecticut border, is a colony of some 200 at Thomp- 
sonville. Regarding converts to Protestantism I have found 
by experience that the Syrian is sometimes willing to embrace 
Protestantism with mental reservations, especially if there 
are any material advantages to be gained. The most sincere 
Protestants of which I have knowledge are those who have 
been at the Syrian Protestant College at Beyrout, or whose 


friends have been under its influence. As far as I know there 
is no regular Protestant congregation with its pastor in New 
England. Reports have been sent to me stating that there 
are no Syrians in Chelsea, in Waltham, or in Plymouth. In 
Fall River there is a large colony, estimated by Mr. Elias 
Nassa of 21 West Broadway, Newport, R. I., to be fully 900. 
They are mostly traders or keep small shops. The women 
go about peddling laces. There are a few Syrians in East 
Brookfield who are Roman Catholic, and a few near Newbury- 
port whose religion is not reported. The number at Lowell 
is considerable, and the men, like those at Lawrence and Spring- 
field, are employed in the textile mills. In Lawrence there 
are also Syrian barbers, tailors, and shoemakers. 

Mr. M. J. Hyder of Springfield, Mass., a cousin of the 
Rev. Moses Abi-Hyder, priest of the Syrian Church in Lawrence, 
gives the following information about the Syrians in Springfield: 
There are in the city proper about 600, of whom 500 attend 
the Maronite Church in Springfield. There are 25 or 30 
Orthodox families, numbering nearh' 100 individuals, who 
depend on infrequent visits from Father Hyder. Last year a 
society was organized called The Guardians of Innocence Syrian 
Society, with a membership of about 50 men, both Orthodox 
and Maronite. They rented a room, and held night school 
for their children, teaching them the Syrian language and 
history, and instructing them in American customs and man- 
ners. In Chicopee and Chicopee Falls there are six or seven 
families, numbering perhaps 30 people, in Holyoke 25 to 30 
Maronites and the same number of Orthodox, in Indian 
Orchard 25 Orthodox, in Westfield 5 Orthodox and 10 Maronite. 
Mr. Hyder states that in Lawrence the Maronite Church 
has some 1,800 members, and the Orthodox about 1,500. 

In Rhode Island the largest colonies are at Providence 
and Pawtucket, with smaller ones at Woonsocket and at 
Newport. Miss H. E. Thomas, secretary of the Charity Organ- 
ization Society of Newport, reports a few families there. She 
says there are eight families in all including 50 individuals; 
five families yield obedience to Bishop Raphael, the Orthodox 
bishop, and three attend the Roman Catholic Church. Mr. 
Shehadi of 2 Weybosset Street, Providence, gives the following 
facts about the Syrians in Rhode Island: "I inquired from 
several sources, but as there is no Syrian bureau in the state 
it is hard to get at the exact number. Estimates differ from 
3,000 to 5,000. I am incHned to believe the first figure is 
more nearly right." There are two Syrian benevolent soci- 
■eties in Pawtucket: one called the United Syrian Benevolent 
Association and the other the Syrian Orthodox Society. 


'riicrc ;ii'(' (|uiti' :i nuiiilicr of Syr'uiiis of tlic ()illio(io\ fallli in 
Ccntrul l*';ills. The divisions in iliis locality socni to In- us 
follows: in rrovidi'iicc^ the most are Muronitos; in Central 
Falls, Syrian Orthodox; in rawtuckct, Syrian Orthodox and 
Roman Catholic; on tlic whole the Maronitos outnund)er any 
other one division. The name of Mr. A. Alid-cl Nour, 238 
Henelit Street, I'rovidence, has been ^iven me as one especially 
well informed on the religious affairs of the Rhode Island 

In Connecticut GO per cent of all the Syrians work in 
mills; in Aliddlctown, where there is a small colony, they work 
in the porcelain factory; in Willimantic, in the thread and 
cloth mills. In this state they are said to "be doing finely" 
by one wdio knows them intimately. There are in Willimantic 
about 70. Of these nearly GO are Orthodox, 2 are Moslems, 
and 7 or 8 are Roman. Near the city there is one Protestant 
family, the father of wdiich was licensed as a preacher at the 
Syrian Protestant College at Beyrout. Besides working in 
the mills the colonists have here three or four clothing shops, 
one very prosperous, the owner having recently put up a 
three-story brick building. Fadlou Saba is a good type of 
the Syrian merchant, honest, generous, and firmly Orthodox 
in religion. His address is 75 Milk Street. There is a society 
here called The Syrian United Association, which aims to 
include all. It meets in a room of the parish house of the 
Episcopal Church loaned to them. Its object is fraternal 
and benevolent. The leading Syrian in this city is Mr. Joseph 
Haddad, an Orthodox and very friendly to the American 
Church. There is a tendency in every colony to follow a 
leader. The most forceful, w^ell-to-do man of good family 
(the Syrians think much of family) becomes a kind of "king." 
If one wants to influence a community the quickest w-ay is 
to secure the support or interest of the "king," and the others 
will usually follow his lead. The men in Willimantic used 
to be kei)t informed through their Orthodox papers of the 
efforts of the Episcopal Church to befriend them and promote 
unity. There are a few Syrians at Norwich, but their numl)ers 
were decreasing at last reports. A very few live at Stafford 
Springs, but this colony seems about to disap])ear. At Ansonia 
there are quite a num])er, the majority Orthodox and some 
attend the Episcopal Church at intervals. The whole number 
is 45 at present, and 15 yield obedience to the Orthodox Bishop 
Raphael. Another settlement exists at Danbury where I 
should judge there are some 150. A prominent man among 
them is Mr. Elias K. Ghiz of 177 Main Street. At Meriden 
the postmaster reports a dozen. At Terryville there are a 


few (Orthodox) and possibly some at Stamford. It is reported 
from Naugatuck that the only Syrians seen there are traveling 
sales-people who come from New York. It has been difficult 
to secure complete information as to Bridgeport. There are 
however about 100 Syrians in the city, of whom only about 
25 are Orthodox. They have no native priest and go to 
New York for the offices of the Church, rather than to the 
local Russian Church, which is very strong in Bridgeport. 
I have been able to hear of only a few Syrians in New Haven 
or Hartford. There are no colonies, strictly speaking, there. 
As to the moral condition of the Syrian it is fully up to 
that of other races if not somewhat better. Drunkenness 
is not common among them, and they are faithful to their 
marriage ties. They are jealous, however, and quarrelsome. 
Laziness seems almost unknown among them and they are 
eager to save. The same religious divisions exist among them 
here that exist in the old country; and these can be grouped 
under the following heads : — 

1. "The Maronites," who take their name from their 
first Monothelitic iMshop, John ]\Iaron, who died 701 A. D. 
They come from the north part of the Lebanon chiefly. There 
are some 230,000 in Syria, and they were originally Monoth- 
elites, but, having joined in the Second Crusade in 1182, 
renounced their heresy before the Latin Patriarch of Antioch 
and in 1445 were formally united to the Roman Church, 
though allowed to continue the Syrian rite, which of late 
years has become somewhat assimilated to the Latin rite. 
In all probability they form about one half of the Syrians 
settled in New England. 

2. The next largest division is the Eastern Orthodox. 
These Orthodox, about 33 per cent of the Syrians in New 
England, are all apparently under Bishop Raphael. This 
Syrian Bishop derives his authority from the Orthodox Patri- 
arch of Antioch, but is closely connected with tlie Russian 
Archbishop in New York. The Syrian Cathedral is at 320 
Pacific Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

3. The Uniats are perhaps 7 per cent. These are Easterns 
who for some reason or other have been induced l^y the Romans 
to submit to the Latin Church, and who are allowed to retain 
more or less of their Eastern ritual. 

4. Protestants. These are partly converts made in 
America and partly those who have been Protestants in the 
old country and they include about 7 per cent. 

5. Moslems. These are practically all Druses from 
Lebanon and Hauran. They seemed at first less inclined 
to emigrate but are now somewhat more numerous. They 


niinilicr !»(), ()()() in S\ lia and aic dcsciilicd as indusf rioiis, 
liospilaMc, brave, tcMipcrutc (all bcinn rcciuiicd to jiltstaiii 
from fohacco and wine), cleanly, and very proud of IJicir 
l)irtli and pccliiitcc, hut revonKcf'd and (iiid. 'I'licir creed 
is an olTsJiool of Moliainniedanisin. 

Louis(> S. Ilougliton in the Sia-rcif says: "Durint;- (lie years 
ISDOllM)?, in which Syrians have heen differentiated from 
other Turkish subjects, 41,404 Syrians have been admitted 
to tlie United States. Although 100,000 is the usual estimate 
of the Syrian pojnilation of this country, 70,000 is that of 
the best inforineil Syrians." This was in the year 1911, and 
the number now may well be 80,000. 

Alaska is credited with 20; California has 8,000; Montana, 
200; Nevada, 700; South Dakota, 200; North Dakota, 1,000. 
Among the most helpful colonies are the; farm settlements 
in Iowa, Kansas, Oklahonui, North and South Dakota, Mon- 
tana, Wyoming, and Washington, the largest being in North 

The largest colonies are in the cities. New York has 
5,000; Lawrence, 6,000; Boston, 5,000; San Francisco, 2,500; 
Worcester, 2,000; Philadelphia, 1,500; Pittsburgh, 1,500; 
Providence, 1,500; Chicago, 1,200; Springfield, Mass., 1,000; 
Los Angeles, Cleveland, and St. Louis have each 800; Albany 
has 600. Buffalo, Toledo, Detroit, Minneai)()lis, St. Paul, 
Indianapolis, and Cincinnati, all have nearly 250 each. Mil- 
waukee and Troy have each 150, and Duluth 56. 

These cities representing twelve out of fifty-two states 
and territories, include about two fifths of the entire Syrian 
population. The others are scattered among the smaller 
towns and villages of these and the remaining thirty-nine 
states and territories. For instance the 200 in South Dakota 
are divided between Deadw^ood, Aberdeen, Sioux City, Lead, 
and Sioux Falls, with a num])er living on outlying farms. 
There are 200 in New IMexico, nearl}^ all isolated farmers. 
There are no Syrians in Baltimore, and a few' only in Washing- 
ton (well-to-do), and in Buffalo a few in a small colony in 
the outskirts of the city. Dr. H. K. Carroll reports, for the 
year 1912, 24 organized churches with 43,000 members. 


Books to Consult. 

Four articles by Louise S. Houghton, which appeared in 
the Survey during 1911 and 1912; entitled: The Sources 
AND Settlement of the Syrians, their Business Activ- 


ITIES, their Intellectual and Social Status, and The 
Syrian as an American Citizen. 

The Religions of Modern Syria and Palestine. By 
F. J. Bliss. Charles Scribncr's Sons, New York, 1912. 

Handbook of Syria and Palestine. By Haskett Smith. 
Travels in Syria and the Holy Land. By Burckhardt. 
Baedeker's Palestine and Syria. 
Syria. An article in the Universal Cyclopaedia and Atlas. 

The Assyrian Church. By the Rev. W. A. Wigram. 
(S. P. C. K.) This deals with the history of the Assyrian 
Church through the early period of Christianity, A.D. 100-640. 



By the Rev. Robert Keating Smith, Westfield, jMass. 


During; tlu; liisl (■culurics of the Cliiistiuu cru, while the 
Gcnnauic pooph's were spicadiiii; throughout western Eurojx', 
tlie Slavs were oeeupyinjz; all eastern Kuro])e as far S(juth as 
the lialUan peninsula. The Slavs have formed tiie bulwark 
of Christendom afi;ainst the invasions of Huns, Avars, and 
Turks, and have a^ain and again repelled the infidel, saving 
Europe from destruction. 

It is curious to observe that the Germans have ])ushed 
eastward through the center of the western Slavic lands, 
meeting the Magyars, who in their turn meet the Rumanians 
eastward, so that there is a non-Slavic wedge driven clear 
through the Slavs from Bavaria through Austria, Hungary, 
and Kumania to the Black Sea. We si)eak, therefore, of the 
northern Slavs and the southern Slavs. Their racial char- 
acteristics are marked, there is a strong feeling of common 
interest, more than 90 per cent use the Slavic Eastern Orthodox 
or Pravoslav liturgy, and the similarity of their languages 
is in striking contrast with the variety which exists among 
the Germanic nations. 

The best description of the appearance of the northern 
Slavs is that given by Miss Emily G. Balch, as follows: — 

"The hair, in my typical Slav, is light in childhood, though 
never the pure flaxen of the Scandinavian; with added years 
it turns to a deep brown, darkening gradually through succes- 
sive ash-brow-n shades. The whole suggestion is of strength, 
trustworthiness, and a certain stolidity, until excitement or 
emotion lights uji the naturally rather unexpr(^ssive features. 
This picture is based upon personal opportunities for observa- 
tion which have included little acquaintance with Russians. 
It seems to me to agree fairly with that of other observers." 

■"fhe southern Slavs have mostly the dark skin and Mack 
hair and eyes characteristic of all southern people. 

Of the total number of Slavs over 2^ per cent are now 
in the United States, and at present the Slavic immigrants 
form somewhat more than 4 per cent of the iiojndation of 
the United States. There is every reason to believe that 
whtn these people are thoroughlj- assimilated the admixture 
will be of immense advantage to this country. They are 
a strong and prolific race, patient and thrifty, and are possessed 
of great powers of entlurance. Besid(>s this, their love of 
home and family, their interest in the children's education 


and success, and tlieir devotion to religion ought to make 

us regard them as a substantial addition to our nationality. 

The Slavs are divided into seven distinct races, some 

of these subdivided into two or more branches. These are: — 

1. Czechs and Slovaks; subdivided into 

Bohemians and Moravians (Czechs). 

2. Lusatian Serbs or Wends. 

3. Poles. 

4. Russians, subdivided into 

Great Russians, 
White Russians, 
Little Russians. 

5. Slovenes. 

6. Croat-Serbs, subdivided into 


7. Bulgarians. 

The part-Slav races are: — 

1. Rumanians; claiming descent from the ancient Roman 
colonists in Dacia, by some called the "Latinized Slavs." 

2. Magyars; the Ugrians (Hungarians), a Finnish race 
from Asia on the male side, probably very largely Slavic 
on the female side. 

3. Lithuanians; originally a co-ordinate race with the 
Slavs, but now undoubtedly a Slavo-Lithuanian mixture. 
Subdivided into 


The following estimate of the distribution of the Slavic 
races is based upon the article contributed to the Smithsonian 
Report for 1910 by Lu])or Niedcrle, Professor of Archeology 
and Ethnology in the University of Prague: — 

1. Bohemians and Moravians (Czechs) 7,000,000 

Slovaks 3,000,000 

2. Lusatian Serbs or Wends 100,000 

3. Poles 19,000,000 

In Russia 9,000,000 

In Austria. . . .' 5,000,000 

In Germany 3,500,000 

In the United States 1,500,000 

4. Russians 11 0,000,000 

Great Russians 73,000,000 

White Russians 7,000,000 


Little Kussitins :i(), ()()(). ooii 

111 Russia 2r),(J()().()()() 

III Cali.'ia ;i,7.")(MI(l() 

In lluiiiiaiy TOO.OOO 

In Aiiu'i-ica . lOO, ()()() 
5. Slovenes 1, .-)()(),()()() 

0. Croats and Serbs 9,0()0,()()U 

In Austria-Hunjiiiry :i,r)()(),()(l() 

In Bosnia anil Herzegovina 2, ()()(), OOO 

In Servia 2,800,000 

In MonteneoTO 350,000 

In Okl Scn-via, Macedonia, and 

Albania 4()().()()() 

In America 300.000 

7. Bulgarians 5,000,000 

In Bulgaria 3.000,000 

In Macedonia 1,200,000 

InThracia 000.000 

InRus.sia 180,000 

In Rumania 100,000 

To these may be added th(> part-Slavic races, which have 
much Slavic intermixture, and considerably resemble in 
customs the neighboring Slavic nations, but do not speak 
a Slavic language, and are not of Slavic origin. These are: — 

1. Rumanians (AVallachs or Vlachs) 9,500.000 

In Rumania 5,500,000 

In Austria-Hungary 2,300,000 

In Russia 1,100,000 

In Macedonia and Thracia 300,000 

In Bulgaria 100,000 

In Servia 200,000 

2. Magyars 9,000,000 

3. Lithuanians and Letts 3,500,000 

Lithuanians proper 2,000,000 

Letts 1,500,000 

The following table is fairly accurate: — 

Number in Native Land. Number in U. S. 

Bohemians 5,000,000 500,000 

Moravians 1,700,000 5.000 

Slovaks 2,500,000 400,000 

Lusatian Serbs or Wends , . . 100,000 1,000 

Poles 17.500.000 1 ,500,000 

Russians 1 10,000,000 500,000 

Slovenes 1,500,000 100,000 


Croatians 2,500,000 300,000 

Serbs 6,500,000 150,000 

Bulgarians 5,000,000 40,000 

Rumanians 9,500,000 100,000 

Magyars 9,000,000 300,000 

Lithuanians 2,000,000 200,000 

Letts 1,500,000 35,000 

Religiously the Slavs are divided as follows: — 

Per cent 

Bohemians, Roman Cathohc 97 

Protestant (Calvinistic) 3 

Moravians, Roman Catholic 94 

Protestant (Calvinistic) 6 

Slovaks, Roman Catholic 60 

Eastern Orthodox : 10 

Uniat 5 

Protestant (Lutheran) 20 

Protestant (Calvinistic) 5 

Wends, Roman Catholic 

Protestant (Lutheran) 

Poles, Roman Catholic 98 

Old Catholic 2 

Russians, Eastern Orthodox 89 

Uniat (in Austria) 3 

Dissenters (Raskolniki) 8 

Protestant (Stundists) (Negligible) 

Slovenes, Roman Catholic 100 

Croats, Roman Cathohc 100 

Serbs, Eastern Orthodox 99.98 

Uniat 0.02 

Bulgarians, Eastern Orthodox 100 

The part-Slavs as follows: — 

Per cent 

Rumanians, Eastern Orthodox 74.3 

Uniat 24.3 

Roman Catholic 1-4 

Magyars, Roman Catholic 50 

Protestant (Calvinistic) 49 

Protestant (Unitarian) 1 

Lithuanians, Roman Cathohc 95 

Eastern Orthodox 4 

Protestant (Lutheran) 1 

Letts, Protestant (Lutheran) 90 

Roman Catholic 6 

Eastern Orthodox 4 


l',ll'.l.I()(il{AlMIY ON 'I'llI': SLAVS 
The Slavs in (ieneral. 

Our Slavic Fellow Citizens. ]^y Emily C>. I'>al( h. 
New York, 10 10. 

The Wiiiuli'ool of Europe, liy A. and E. Colquhoun. 
New York, 1007. 

Aliens or Americans. By Ilowurd B. Grose. New 
York, 1900. 

On the Trail of the Immkjrant. By Edward A. Stcinor. 
Chicago, 1900. 

The Immigrant Tide. By Edward A. Steiner. New 
York, 1909. There is in this book a good discussion of religious 
and moral problems. 

The Slav Invasion and the Mine Workers. By F. 
Julian Warne. Philadelphia, 1904. 

The New Immigration. By Peter Roberts. New York, 

The article on Slavs in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th 
Edition, is most excellent. 

Geographical and Statistical View of the Contem- 
porary Slav Peoples, with a map, to be found in the Smith- 
sonian Institution Report for 1910 (pages 599-612), is an 
important document by Lubor Niederle, professor of Archaeology 
and Ethnology, at the Bohemian University, Prague. 

Baedeker's Austria-Hungary, 1905, is singularly accurate 
and contains much descriptive and statistical information. 

Ranke's Servia, Bosnia, and the Slave Provinces, 
is a valuable work to consult, representing a view of the South- 
ern Slavs in 1850. This book is published in Bohn's Library, 

Fifty Years in Constantinople. By George Washburn. 
Boston, 1909. This is an account of Robert College, Con- 
stantinople, and is very interesting in its references to the 
Southern Slavs. 

The United States Religious Census Report of 1906 
gives statistical information regarding the use of Slavic lan- 
guages in various churches in the United States, with a sum- 
mary of the Eastern Orthodox Churches in this country at 
that date. 

Conversion of the West: The Slavs. By Rev. G. F. 
Maclear. London, S. P. C. K., 1879. This is very concise, 
clear, and interesting. 



The nature of Bohemia, a fertile, undulating basin, sur- 
rounded by formidable mountains and containing nearly every 
necessary natural product, makes it, as Goethe said, "a con- 
tinent within the European continent," and the history of 
Bohemia, a struggle to maintain an independent nationality 
by repelling successive invasions, is more like that of an insular 
country. Indeed, had Bohemia's mountains been England's 
seas her history would have been similar, especially in religion. 

The Bohemians are pure Czechs, the most highly educated 
of the Slavic races. They have lived from the first in unending 
contention with the Germans, who surround them on three 
sides. During the last century Bohemia has become an indus- 
trial state, and has grown to be not only the chief manufacturing 
province of Austria but also one of the first manufacturing 
countries of Europe. 

The population of Bohemia is 6,320,000, made up of 
5,000,000 Bohemians (Czechs) and 1,300,000 Germans on the 
borders of Bavaria and Saxony, with a scattering of Jews. 

It may ])e well to note that the popular use of the word 
"Bohemian" is founded upon a French misunderstanding of the 
Gypsies who first came into France from Rumania by way 
of Bohemia. So called "Bohemian" ways are therefore 
Gypsy ways, and nothing could be farther from the orderly, 
gentle, trustworthy, and home-loving nature of the Bohemian 

To get at the religious status of the Bohemians a short 
study of the history of Bohemia is necessary. This is here 
given: — 

The attempts of the German missionaries to bring Chris- 
tianity to the Czechs in the 9th centurj'^ were not successful, 
and it was through the Greek Church that the Bohemians 
became Christian. Cyril and Methodius, who were Thessalo- 
nians, were sent from Constantinople as missionaries to the 
Slavs in 860. Cyril translated into the Slavic tongue the 
liturgy of the Greek Rite and also the Epistles and Gospels. 
He invented for the pur])ose an alphabet l)ased upon the 
Greek, called therefore the Cyrillic alphabet and in constant 
use to-day in eastern Europe. This Old Slavic is the liturgical 
language of the Russian, Bulgarian, and Servian churches 
at the present time. The Czechs of Boh(>mia and Moravia 
eagerly received Christianity in this form, for it was actually 
the establishment of a Slavic national church of the Oriental 

The Latin Archbishop of Salzburg (a German) protested 


against the cxlcusiou of the Sl;i\ic-( lirrk Mite, lnil 1\)\h; 
•lolin \'lll ill 880 j;uv(> permission to u>c the Sl;i\ic lauKuaRc^ 
forever in tlic Mass and in (he whole lit ur«iv and offices of 
the Cluircli, and Methodius was upjjointcd Bishop of l*annoniia 
(Bohemia and Moravia). In \)7'A Praj;ue was mach- the see 
of a Ijisjiop. in 10;i8 Servius became Bishop of Praji;ue. Ho 
devoted his encrjiiies to al)olishin}^ tlie Slavic Rite and orf;anized 
th(> Church on tlie model of the (Icrnian I^onian ("atholic 

In 1075 Pojie Gregory Vil finally condemned the Slavic 
liturgy and withdrew it from the Church, declaring that 
"the use of the vernacular was conceded oiily on account of tem- 
porary circumstances which have passed aicay." The Slavic 
liturgy however, having spread also among the Servians, 
Russians, and Bulgarians, continued to be used in Bohemia 
contemporaneously with the Roman liturgy. When in 1350 
the famous Abbey Emaus was built in Prague and the monks 
moved into it they were using the Slavic liturgy unchanged. 
In fact there was never willing submission to Rome, and 
in the 14th century the Bohemians were even more inclined 
to establish a national Church. In 1344 the Bishop of Prague 
was made Archbishop in response to the demand that Bohemia 
be made independent of the German Archbishop of Mainz. 

An influence of deep significance entered with the marriage 
of Anne of Bohemia to Richard II of England in 1381. Both 
England and Bohemia were independently striving to reform 
the Church. The attendants of the new queen became inter- 
ested in the writings of Wyclif (1324-1384) and sent them 
home to Bohemia. There were already English students at 
the University of Prague and the result of this intercommu- 
nication was far reaching in both countries. John Hus (1369- 
1415) precipitated the struggle to return at least to the freedom 
of the ancient Slavic Church of the people, and in 1417 the 
"Articles of Prague" Avere presented to Rome, demanding 
that the Word of God be freely preached, that the Sacrament 
be administered to the people in both kinds, and that the 
clergy possess no property nor temporal power. Then began 
the "Crusades" of the German Romanists against Bohemia 
lasting for 15 years and resulting in victory for the Bohemians. 
In 1435 Pope Martin consented to the demands of the Articles 
of Prague, and the Calixtine or Utraquist Church was estab- 
lished in 143G (so called because of the demand for the Chalice, 
or the Communion in both kinds). John Rokyan was elected 
archbishop and the ancient Slavic language was restored in 
the liturgy, but at the same time the Roman Church con- 
tinued among the Germans in Bohemia, and constant struggles 


always resulted in favor of Rome, especially as the continued 
colonization of Germans increased the anti-Bohemian element. 
The Utraquist Church endeavored in every way to be acknowl- 
edged by Rome, claiming to be truly Catholic and Orthodox, 
but Pope Nicholas in 1455 formally repudiated the compacts 
of the Articles of Prague. In 1452 the Bohemian bishops 
began a movement to appeal to the Patriarch of Constanti- 
nople, but the fall of Constantinople before the Turks in 
1453 frustrated this. 

The Protestant element of the Reformation now entered 
in. Those who had followed Count Ziska in the Hussite 
controversies had organized themselves into a community 
known as "Taborites." They rejected all the Sacraments 
but Baptism and opposed the Catholic rites and ceremonies. 
The community was dissolved but afterwards the "Unity 
of the Brethren" was organized and sought connection with 
the Waldenses, from whom they received a bishop in 1457. 
The disestablishment of the National (Utraquist) Church was 
repeatedly demanded by the Brethren, and in this lay the 
future downfall of Bohemia. In 1556 the Jesuits were intro- 
duced and the re-establishment of the Roman Church went 
steadily on. In 1562 the Roman Archbishop of Prague was 
restored after an interval of a century and a quarter. Mean- 
while the Brethren became disintegrated and were diverted 
toward Lutheranism in 1528, and Calvinism in 1546. The 
Utraquist Church existed nevertheless with various vicis- 
situdes until 1620, when the Thirty Years' War destroyed 
all that was distinctive of Bohemia and reduced the population 
from 4,000,000 to 800,000. The original stock of the Utraquists 
rather than turn Protestant returned to a nominal obedience 
to the Church of Rome. In 1595, profiting by Rome's experi- 
ence with Bohemia, Pope Clement V granted to the Russians 
in Galicia all that the Bohemians had demanded in the Utra- 
quist Church, and thus the Uniat Church was formed, but 
it was too late to take the same action for Bohemia. 

To-day the Bohemians are mostly but nominal Roman 
Catholics and the men go to church very seldom. For this 
reason very many Bohemians have become Freethinkers. 
The Germans in Bohemia are principally Roman Catholics, 
and this fact increases the Bohemian indifference to the Church 
on account of the bitter antagonism between the two races. 
There are about 50 congregations with 150,000 members 
of the Bohemian Reformed Church (Calvinistic), corresponding 
to the Dutch Reformed and Presbyterian churches. All 
Lutherans in Bohemia are German. The American Con- 
gregational Church has a mission station in Prague. 


There are 500, UOU Jiulieiuians in the I'liited States, with 
100,000 in Chicafto, 45,000 in Cleveland, and :^0,000 in New- 
York City, and the remainder largely in the northern Mis- 
sissippi valley states. The number in New Englanil is probably 
as follows: — 

Maine 50 

New Hampshire 20 

Vermont 10 

Massachusetts 1,800 

Rhode Island 100 

Connecticut 1,500 

The principal centers in New^ England are West Springfield 
(500), Westfield (450), South Boston (250), New Bedford 
(250), Easthampton (50), Northampton (50), and Turners 
Falls (50), Massachusetts; and Bridgeport (500), South 
Norwalk (300), Middletown (200), East Haddam (250), Con- 
necticut; while along the Connecticut River from Saybrook to 
Hartford there are some 50 families settled as farmers. 

The Bohemians were the earliest of all the Slavic immi- 
grants to this country. Bohemian peasants have settled 
in the northwestern states, where they are now intelligent 
and prosperous farmers. The later immigrants have been 
skilled laborers, tailors, carpenters, machinists, bakers, and 
cigar makers. They are thrifty and honest, law-abiding, 
careful of their children, and as a rule they are property owners. 
The New York City tenement inspectors report that the 
Bohemians are perhaps the cleanest poor people in the city. 
Music is their passion, and hardly a Bohemian family can 
be found w^ithout a piano or organ and one or two violins. 
The boys are almost without exception excellent singers, 
above the average (a fact that has not yet been discovered 
by many of our choir masters), and in addition they are regular, 
attentive, and orderly, sensitive to rebuke, and eager to do 

In America the Catholic Bohemians resent any approach 
by Protestants and claim to be Roman Catholics, although 
but few of the men attend church, and the women are loyal 
only to the extent of having the children baptized by the 
Roman priest, but they are satisfied with Protestant or civic 
marriage, and are willing to send their children to Protestant 
Sunday schools, although wholly for educational and social 
reasons. Out of 500,000 Bohemians in this country not 
more than 200,000 can be claimed as loyal Roman Catholics. 
The Reformed naturally find their place among the Pres- 
byterians or Congregationalists, who cannot account for as 


many as 10,000. In the Northwest, centering about Chicago, 
there must be in the neighborhood of 100,000 Freethinkers 
among the Bohemians, who carry on a regular propaganda 
of infideHt}^ with Sunday congregations and Sunday schools 
in which every effort is made to inculcate disbelief in God, 
although the principal design is to destroy loyalty to the 
Roman Catholic Church. It is safe to say that there are 
in the United States 200,000 Bohemians who are nominally 
Roman Catholics but are actually Catholics who represent 
the inherited instinct of the national independent Church. 
How to reach these people and the Freethinkers is one of the 
largest problems that Christianity is confronted with among 
our immigrant peoples. It is a fact that Bohemians will 
not attend Mass where the congregation is mostly German, 
because of the mutual antagonism, and they are averse to 
associating with the Poles or the Irish, both of whom they 
consider their inferiors. Indeed, they can only be counted 
upon by the Roman Church in congregations where they have 
the preponderance, and even in these the minority must be 
large enough to suppress the assertive independence of the 

Where Catholic Bohemians are not in touch with the 
Roman parish where they live, and discover our Communion, 
they seek the Church for marriage, baptism, and even con- 
firmation, but very few of our priests know enough about 
the Bohemians to give them the kind of pastoral attention 
they crave. Bohemians who know our Church to l)e identical 
with the Church of England (which they call the English 
Cathohc Church) call ours the "English CathoHc Church." 
In talking with these people about the history of their country, 
with which they are all familiar, they are found to be in sym- 
pathy with John Hus and the Catholic Reformation for which 
he stood. The patron saint of Bohemia is St. John Nepomuk, 
but intelligent Bohemians know that this is a fiction for John 
Hus, and statues of the patron saint are often original statues 
of John Hus with a halo added. The Bohemians, like the 
EngHsh, are born and bred to the Western Liturgy; they could 
not be brought to the Pravoslav or Eastern Orthodox, so that 
the only alternative of the Latin Rite is the Anglican. For 
at least 200,000 Bohemians in the United States who are 
not really Roman Catholics and emphatically will not be 
Protestants, our Church of all others ought to have a mission. 
It must be noted that the whole training of these people 
naturally makes them look for the outward evidences of 
Eucharistic vestments and altar candles, Avhile the service 
of Morning Prayer is utterly confusing to them. In this 


connoftioii it will 1)(> iulcrcstinp; to note thai in 1855 an altcinpt 
was made by our Cliurcli in St. Louis to roach the Jifjhcinians, 
and a part of the Prayer book was Iranslatod into the ('zcch 
language. Morning and Evening Prayer, so provided, how- 
ever, did not a])peal to them, and the attempt was without 

Churches in the United States which use the Bohemian 
language (according to the Religious Census of 190G) are 
as follows: — 

Roman Catholic 175 churches, 175,000 members. 

Presbyterian 27 churches, 2,500 members. 

Congregational 10 churches, 550 members. 

Methodist 9 churches, 800 members. 

Reformed (Dutch). . . 2 churches, 115 members. 

Baptist 3 churches, 230 members. 


Bohemia, an Historical Sketch. By Count Lutzow. 
London, 189G. 

The Story of Prague. By Count Lutzow. London, 

The Life and Times of Master John Hus. By Count 
Lutzow. New York, 1909. Count Lutzow is a. Bohemian, 
holding degrees from Oxford and Prague, and he writes the 
most lucid English. His life of Hus is the best account ever 
written of the Bohemian Pre-Reformation. 

Conversion of the West. The Slavs. By Rev. 
G. F. Maclear. London, S. P. C. K. 1879. 

Guide to the Bohemian Section in the Austrian 
Exhibition in London. 1906. Edited by various Bohemian 
writers on the History, Industries, Customs, and Religion 
of the Bohemian people. London, 190G. 

Bohemia, in "Story of the Nations" Series. By C. E. 
Maurice. New York, 1896. 

Our Slavic Fellow Citizens. By Emily G. Balch. 
New York, 1910. 

Bohemia and the Czechs. By Will S. Monroe. Boston, 

Pictures from Bohemia. By James Baker. Religious 
Tract Society, London. 

On the Trail of the Immigrant (Chap. 15). By Edward 
A. Steiner. Chicago, 1906. 

The article on Bohemia in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
11th Edition, is excellent. 


A good many very interesting magazine articles have 
been written on the Bohemian immigrants, for wliich see 
a Periodical Index. 

The Champlain Educator for January-March, 1906, con- 
tains an article by Kohlbek on the Roman Catholic Bohemians 
in the United States. 


The Moravians are Czechs, very closely related to the 
Bohemians. In fact, Moravia was united with Bohemia 
from the 12th century until 1849. The valleys of Moravia 
are very fertile and the inhabitants are for the most part 
contented and modestly prosperous. There is very little 
emigration. The population is about 2,500,000, of whom 
1,700,000 are Czechs and about 650,000 are Germans. 

Religiously the Moravians are Roman Catholics, although 
their adherence is almost like that of the Bohemians, nearly 
nominal. The Protestants are members of the Reformed 
Church, which has 30 congregations with perhaps 100,000 

Moravians are entirely absorbed by the Bohemians in 
their immigration to America, so that their number (which 
is very small) is not shown. There is a colony of Protestants 
from Moravia in Texas who have organized themselves into 
a body called The Evangelical Union of Bohemian and Mora- 
vian Brethren. In 1906 this body had 15 churches with perhaps 
3,000 members. 

The Protestant body known as the Moravian Church was 
founded in America so early in the 18th century that its mem- 
bers can hardly be considered in this connection. They have, 
even from the first, been very largely Germanized. They 
carry on among their many missionary enterprises, however, 
a mission among the Germans in Moravia and Bohemia. 

Interesting as the history of the religious body of the 
Moravian Church may be, it is really more of a German than 
a Slavic movement, and does not come within the scope of 
the present Report. 

The books listed for the Bohemians also describe the 


It seems undoubtedly a fact that the Slovaks are the Slavs 
who first pushed out from western Dacia the ancient Rumanians, 


;uul tlii'ii t tifinsclvcs were dislodifcd l)\- (lie Magyars coiiiiiiti; 
in from Asi;i. In llic (illi century they sccin to have occupied 
tiio t(>rri(ory of lluii,u;:uy proper, and after the 9tli century 
they wvrv ilriven into the hisiihinds of Moravia and the north- 
western mountains of Hungary, many maintaining themselves, 
however, in suuiU agricultural communities as far south as 
Servia. It is a (piestion whether the military Magyars brought 
many women with tluMu into the con(iuered territory, and the 
probability is that a large ])()rtion of tlu; Slovak race was 
absorbed by them in marriage, especially among the aristoc- 
racy. The burning questions of race conflict in Austria- 
Hungary include the struggle of the Slovaks against further 
Magyarization. The right to use the Slovak language in 
schools or churches is denied by the Hungarian government, 
but the Slovaks have caught the s])irit of the Slav awakening 
and are to-day fighting the Magyar statement, made in the 
Hungarian parliament, that "there is no Slovak nation." 

The Slovaks speak what is practically a dialect of the 
Czech language. The pure Slovaks inhabit the highlands 
of Moravia and the northwestern boundary of Hungary, 
but they are found still " Unmagyarized," in groups in many 
parts of Hungary, having villages of their own in which they 
preserve their own language and customs in the midst of 
other nationalities. For centuries the Slovaks made the 
tinware of Europe, wandering from country to country, and 
in England they were called "Tinkers," and were confounded 
with the Gypsies. 

The Slovaks number about 3,000,000. It is estimated that 
there are about 400,000 in the United States, but it is difficult 
to keep an accurate account of them, for they go back and 
forth between this country and the home land continually 
in great numbers. They are very commonly called "Slavish," 
and now and then one calls himself "Hungarian." They 
find work here mostly as laborers in mines and factories. 
When they settle down they prove to be very thrifty and 
prosperous. They have tinware factories in New York City, 
Philadelphia, and Chicago. There are a good many farmers 
in the Middle West and also in New England. 

The number in New England may probably be as follows: — 

Maine 500 

New Hampshire 200 

Vermont 400 

Massachusetts 2,500 

Rhode Island 200 

Connecticut 10,000 


Religiously, about one half of the Slovaks are Roman 
Catholics of the Latin Rite. There are a number of Orthodox 
in every Slovak community, and there are a few Uniats. 
About one quarter are Protestants, most of these Lutherans, 
the rest Reformed. 

In the United States the Slovak Lutherans are organized 
into the Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Synod of America, 
with 59 church buildings and some 12,000 members in the 
North Atlantic and Middle States. 

The churches in which the Slovak language is used are as 
follows (Census of 1906): — 

Roman Catholic 60 churches, 78,000 members. 

Lutheran 63 churches, 13,000 members. 

Congregational 4 churches, 176 members. 

Presbyterian 1 church, 105 members. 

Baptist 1 church, 58 members. 

Methodist 1 church, 17 members. 


The Slovaks of Hungary. By Thomas Capek. New 
York, 1906. This is an important book, and covers the 
ground better than any other on the Slovaks. 

Our Slavic Fellow Citizens. By Emilj^ G. Balch. 
New York, 1910. 


Francis H. E. Palmer. New York, 1903. 

Aliens or Americans. By Howard B. Grose. New 
York, 1906. 

On the Trail of the Immigrant (Chap. 13). By Edward 
A. Steiner. Chicago, 1906. 

The article on Slovaks in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
11th Edition, is too short to be of much value. 


The Slavic movement westward was arrested by the 
Germans at the banks of the River Elbe. From the bound- 
aries of Bohemia to the Elbe extended powerful settlements 
of a distinct Slavic race, known as the Elbe Slavs, but now 
more commonly called the Lusatian Serbs or Wends. In 
the 14th century these people were included in the kingdom 
of Bohemia, but before that time they had begun to be over- 
whelmed and assimilated by the Germans. They were, 
as time went on, completely surrounded by Germans, and 
by the loth century they existed only in scattered colonies. 


To-day there iTinains hut a frap;incnt of lliese jjcoplc inhahilins 
a circuinsfrihcil area hetweeii tlie cities of Jierliu and Dresden, 
still speukins a distinct dialect of the Slavish tongue called 
Wendish. They ninnber now about 100,000. 

In the year 1S54 about 400 of these people touiid their 
way as ininiij;rants to Texas, and there are about l.OOO in 
small settlements in that state, one of which is a town named 
Serbin (from Serb). There is a Lutheran churcli numbering 
05() members in one of these settlements, where the Wendish 
language is used in the service, for the ancient language is 
still i^reservcd by these people. 

^^'hile unimportant from an intlustrial or religious stand- 
point, these immigrants are most interesting from an ethno- 
logical point of view. There is something pathetic in the 
jiresence among us of representatives of a doomed and fast 
disappearing race which may become extinct in another 

jNIiss l^aU'h in Ouii Slavic Fellow^ Citizens describes 
these people and their settlement in Texas. 

Professor Niederle describes the "Luzice Serbs" in his 
paper in the Smithsonian Report for 1910. 

In Rev. G. F. Maclear's Conversion of the West: The 
Slavs, a chapter is devoted to the Ancient Wends. 


The Poles have remained in the same locality from pre- 
historic times. Poland was the leading power of eastern 
Europe from 1400 to 1600, and her history is full of war and 
romance. Caught at last between the powerful governments 
of Russia, Germany, and Austria, her national identity was 
crushed, and the three partitions of her territory were made 
in 1772, 1773, and 1774, 

A few Poles were converted to Christianity by the Bohe- 
mians, but Christianity made very little headway until about 
the year 1000. The influence of Roman Catholic Germany, 
steadily brought to bear, eventually prevailed, and to-daj' 
the Poles are among the most loyal Roman Catholics. There 
are a few Polish Lutherans but these are so through intermar- 
riage with Germans. 

Perhaps the best description of the Poles in a short sentence 
is the following given by Dr. J. G. Wilson: "The Poles in 
common with all Slavs possess a peculiar combination of 
eastern and western civilization. They love political freedom, 
but are easily caught by the glitter and pomp of a throne. 
They are individually poor business men. They possess great 


intellectual gifts, they are almost universal linguists. They 
are versatile rather than profound. They have a love of 
individual freedom almost to the point of anarchy." 

The number of Poles in Europe is about 17,500,000, divided 
as follows: in Russia 9,000,000, in Austria (western Galicia) 
5,000,000, and in Germany 3,500,000. The first Poles to 
come to the United States came from eastern Prussia, and 
this immigration from Germany's part of the divided kingdom 
is about at an end. The next immigration, from Austria, 
is "also nearly finished, and to-day 8 per cent of the Poles 
are citizens of the United States. They enter as unskilled 
laborers, having at home worked in the fields during the 
summer and in factories during the winter. They find occupa- 
tion in every branch of work in this country, and are growing 
in prosperit}'^ as laborers, business men, and farmers. In 
many of our cities they form a large part of the population, 
and the men and w^omen are organized into mutual protective 
societies, both religious and patriotic. They build large 
parish churches and parochial schools, and are thus settled 
in New England and through all the country westward, the 
principal centers being Chicago, Buffalo, and Milwaukee. 
There are now 1,500,000 in the United States. 

The number of Poles in New England is as follows: — 

Maine 2,000 

New Hampshire 5,000 

Vermont 5,000 

Massachusetts 100,000 

Rhode Island 10,000 

Connecticut 70,000 

Although the Poles are very ardent Roman Catholics, 
the Old Catholics in Poland now number 300,000 adherents. 

^ defection from Papal authority occurred in 1904, resulting 
in the organization of the Polish National Church of America. 

J he best account of this movement is given in the United 
States Rehgious Census of 1906 (Vol. 2, page 500). The 
following is condensed from this account: — 

"With the increasing immigration from Poland, and the 
establishment of large Polish Roman Catholic churches in 
a number of American cities, misunderstandings and disputes 
developed between the ecclesiastical and the lay members 
of the Polish parishes. These were occasioned chiefly by 
dissatisfaction on the part of the laymen with the 'absolute 
religious, political, and social power over the parishioners' 
given by the Council of Baltimore in 1883 to the Roman 
Catholic priesthood; and by the rather free exercise of that 


power oil tlic pint of (■('rt:iiii Ronuin Catholic priests. The 
situation was a^f^ravatt'd, in some cases, by the placing of 
other tlian ToUsh i)riests in charge of Pohsli churches. The 
result was that disturbances arose, wliich developed at times 
into riots. 

"In HulTak), Chicago, Cleveland, and in Scranton and 
Shaniokin, Pa., serious troubles arose. Independent con- 
gregations were organized, and poi)ular Polish priests were 
called as pastors and accepted. In 1904 a convention of 
these independent congregations was held at Scranton, and 
was attended by clerical and lay delegates representing 20,000 
people in five states. As a result the Polish National Church 
of America was organized, and the Rev. Francis Hodur, 
pastor of the Scranton church, was elected as its head priest. 
Father Hodur was subsequently consecrated by Archbishop 
Gul of Utrecht, Bishop Van Thiel of Haarlem, and Bishop 
Spit of Deventcr, the national Catholic bishops of the Neth- 
erlands. The Latin books of Holy Church Kites were translated 
into the Polish language, and resolutions were adopted express- 
ing a desire for fraternal and sympathetic co-operation with 
other Catholic churches and repudiating the claim of the 
Roman Catholic Church to be the sole exponent of the true 
doctrines of Christ." 

There are 6 Polish National Church congregations in 
Massachusetts, 1 in Connecticut, 4 in New Jersey, 9 in Penn- 
sylvania, 1 in Maryland, 1 in Missouri, 3 in lUinois, and 1 in 
Minnesota, with 1 in Manitoba. 

According to the Census of 1906 there were: — 

Roman Catholic 490 churches, 800,000 members. 

National Polish 23 churches, 20,000 members. 

Baptist 5 churches, 320 members. 

Lutheran 5 churches, 201 members. 


Poland, a Study of the Land, People and Literature. 
By Geo. Brandes. London, 1903. 

Poland, the Knight among Nations. By L. E. Van 
Norman. New York, 1907. 

Poland, in the "Story of the Nations" Series. By William 
R. Morfill. New York, 1893. 

The article on Poland in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
11th Edition, is very excellent. 

In the United States Rehgious Census Report of 1906, 
an excellent account is given of the formation of the Polish 
National Church of America (Vol. 2, page 506). 


A great many articles have appeared describing the Poles 
in the United States, which are of varying value. Consult 
a Periodical Index. 


While the rest of Europe was engaged in internecine strife 
through many centuries, a sufficient nucleus of Slavic people 
remained in what is now Russia, unsubjugated by invaders 
and working out for themselves a sort of basis of fusion which 
has enabled them to blend their differences, gradually absorb 
closely related races, and become a homogeneous nation. 

The historical development of the Russians and the for- 
mation of the Russian Church is too extended a subject to be 
considered here. The essential features will be taken up 
under the respective branches of the race hereafter. A short 
outline of the Russian National Church, however, will be in 

The Patriarch of Moscow was replaced in 1700 by the 
Holy Synod of Russia, which is composed of the MetropoUtans 
of Kiev, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, several bishops, repre- 
senting the rehgious side, and some of the higher officials 
of the government representing the state. The Procurator 
General of the Holy Synod is the representative of the Czar, 
acting for the nation in ecclesiastical affairs, but without 
a vote. The Holy Synod meets to determine not doctrines 
but policies, and it is supreme in spiritual discipline. The 
Church is Orthodox and in full communion with the Patriarch 
of Constantinople and the other Eastern Orthodox churches. 
It is intensely national, however, and jealously guards the 
religious interests of the Russians against any possible encroach- 
ment on their distinctive rights. The laity are very loyal 
to their Church, and the priests are at least thoroughly in- 
structed in their pastoral and sacerdotal duties. Education 
has not yet made the advance among the Russian people 
that it has among the people of western Europe, but the 
upper classes of society are well educated and the wealthy 
are generous in their financial support of the Church and its 
missionary work. 

The Church of Russia is essentially a missionary church. 
A great amount of Christian work has been done among 
the tribes of her Asiatic empire. Self-denying missionaries 
have brought the gospel to the Eskimos and Indians of Alaska, 
and a large number of the Japanese have been Christianized, 
so that there is in Japan a vigorous branch of the Russian 
Church. The Church also supports Christian work among 


the Russi:iii iminifj;rants in Aincrica, aiding in the support 
of the cl('r{i;y aiul coiitril>utins toward the huildiiiK of churches. 

A curious revolt from the Church occurred in the 17th 
cciiturv. on th(> clianji;e of the cah-ndar and tlie substitution 
of a more accurate version of tlie Service liook. Many 
of the common i)('()i)l(' had used the Book superstitiously 
in a sort of cabahstic way, and when the worcHng was altered 
their faith was shattered and they left the Church in great 
numbers. These Dissenters are called " Raskolniki," and 
for two centuries they maintained churches and schools, 
calling themselves "Starovery" (Old Believers). They are 
moderately well to do, and can read and write. They number 
some 1 0,000, ()(K) at present. 

Protestantism has made very little progress among the 
Russians. There has been some advance made through the 
rationalistic influence of German colonists, whose converts 
are called "Stundists," and these are found in southern Russia, 
but their number is negligible. 

During the latter half of the past century there was an 
awakening of Slavic consciousness which began with a revival 
of the literature of the various Slavic races. This soon devel- 
oped into a movement which l)ecame more racial than national, 
and is called Pan-Slavism. Russia, being the one great Slavic 
nation, became in many ways the patron of this movement, 
and to-day the Slavs of northern Austria look favorably 
upon Russia as a friend, while it has been largely the fostering 
assistance of Russia which has enabled the Slavic Balkan 
States to develop so rapidly since the Turko-Russian war 
of 1878. Connected with the Pan-Slavic movement there is 
the Pravoslav or Eastern Orthodox Church of the Slavs. 
The Old Slavonic of this liturgy is the norm of all the Slavic 
language, and this is a growing bond of union. The Russian 
National Church naturally becomes a factor of great importance, 
and the missionary spirit of this great Church has found here 
a wide open door for her influence. Among the Russian 
Uniats the tendency is more and more to return from the 
Roman to the Russian Church, while among the Serbs adher- 
ence to Orthodoxy is a test of nationality. 

To combat this leaning toward the Orthodox Church, 
a propaganda has been started in favor of the Roman Church, 
called the "Unislav League." The principles for which this 
league stands are stated as follows,, though they do not seem 
to have made much headway: — 

1. To establish among the Slavs the principle of Catholic 


2. To propagate among Slavs a Catholic spirit through 
Unislav publications and clubs. 

3. To group together in a Catholic dominion all the 
autonomous Slav nations. 

4. To engage in peaceful action, refraining from revolu- 
tionary violence. 

5. To preserve the autonomy of the nations constituting 
the future Slav dominions. 

The Russians are divided into three distinct sub-races. 
They speak one language and have common customs, but 
there are three different dialects. These sub-races are the 
Great Russians, the White Russians, and the Little Russians. 

I. The Great Russians 

The Great Russians form the bulk of the Russian nation, 
occupying the territor}^ east of a line drawn from the point 
of the Gulf of Finland to the Sea of Azov. They number 
73,000,000 people, and of all the Slavs they are the least 
influenced by other races. On the south they were again 
and again assailed by the Asiatic invaders, the Huns, Avars, 
Magyars, Turks, and Tartars, withdrawing northward, but 
alwaj^s returning gradually to their former possessions, Avhile 
their kinsmen, the Little Russians, were subjugated by the 
Magyars and the Poles, and the White Russians by the Poles 
and Lithuanians. 

The introduction of Christianity among the Great Russians 
was made in the 10th century through the missionary activity 
of Michael, the first Metropolitan of Kiev, who built schools 
and churches and, "with his bishops made progresses into 
the interior of Russia, everywhere baptizing and instructing 
the people." When the Tartars drove the ^Metropolitan north- 
ward and his see was transferred to Moscow^ in the 14th century, 
it was but a matter of time when the Church of Russia should 
become autonomous, for the Turkish subjugation of all Europe 
lying between Moscow and Constantinople separated Russia 
from the supervision of the Eastern Patriarch. At the same 
time Novgorod was united to Moscow rather than to Poland 
and Lithuania, and Moscow became both the political and 
religious center of the nation. When in the 17th century 
St. Petersburg w'as built and the government transferred to 
the new city, the supremacy of the Great Russians was devel- 
oped and firmly established for all time. Hardened and 
made inflexible by their long and successful resistance against 
foreign invaders, seasoned and rendered patient and yet 
heroically persistent by the rigors of the northern clime, 


tlic nioi-al ii;itui-c of tlic (Irral l^tissian people was deeply 
rooted. Added to this, tlie religion, wliicli was s1h(11\' reeei\'ed 
l>y tlu'in froiii the first, not impressed upon them hy the sword 
nor l)y tlie fiat of a council, hut l)y missionary education, 
made of them the firmest of Orthodox Christians and the 
imi>lacal)le opponents of any advance on the part of the 
( 'hurcli of Home. 

\'ery few, if any, of the immigrants in the United States 
are Great Russians. These peoi)le form the hulk of the 
immense immigration into Siberia that is now going on at 
the rate of half a million a year. Along the Siberian railway, 
villages are springing u]) with schools and churches built 
by the government, which has spent in ten years almost a 
billion dollars in promoting immigration into Siberia. Within 
the past year, however. Great Russians have been moving 
into Canada in large num])ers. 

II. The White Russians. 

The White Russians occupy, with Great and Little Russians, 
Poles, and Lithuanians, the upper parts of the western slopes 
of the central plateau of Russia. These people were at one 
time partly included in the kingdom of Lithuania, and they 
Avere in the borderland of Poland in the time of Catherine II., 
Empress of Russia. 

In the Compromise of 1596 many Wliite Russians were 
included, and they became Uniats. But in 1763 the Uniat 
Bishop of Mohilev made complaint to Catherine that 150 
parishes in his diocese had been forcibly Romanized by the 
Polish authorities. After the First Partition of Poland, 
in 1772, which ceded the territory in which the White Russians 
dw-elt to Russia, the Diocese of Mohilev at once returned 
to the Russian Orthodox Church, foUow^ed quickly by all 
the W^hite Russians. 

The White Russians numlxM- al)out 7,000,000 people, 
and they are not commonly distinguished from the Great 
Russians. They have very recently begun to emigrate to 
America, that is, since 1905, and they live together with 
the Little Russians in this country, occupied in the same 
work. They promptly connect themselves wdth the Russian 
Orthodox parish wherever they may be. They cannot be dis- 
tinguished in the census reports, so that there is no way of 
telling how many of this ])ranch of the Russian people are in 
this country. The estimates made l)y competent authorities 
range anywhere from 50,000 to 100,000 Orthodox Russians in 
the United States, but the W^hite Russians do not form a 


majority of those, for the Little I^ussians greatly outnumber 
them in most places. 

III. The Little Russians. 

The Little Russians dwell in the steppes and southwestern 
slopes of the great central plateau of eastern Europe, and 
through long centuries have been ground between the revolving 
forces of racial conflict. All the Asiatic invaders of Europe 
have at one time had them in subjection, and on the west 
the Poles and Magyars have dominated them. The Great 
Russians finally delivered the Little Russians in the south 
from the Turks, but those in the west remained subjects 
of Poland until the end of that kingdom. In the First Partition 
of Poland, in 1772, a portion of the Little Russians was included 
in Galicia, which was ceded to Austria. In 1777 Turkey 
ceded to Austria the province of Bukowina with more Little 
Russians. In the Second and Third Partitions of Poland, 
in 1793 and 1794, the remaining portion of the Little Russians 
were united with Russia, to whom they naturally belonged. 

In Russia the Little Russians are found in the southern 
part, extending eastward from Austria-Hungary along the 
northern coast of the Black Sea as far as the Sea of Azov. 
They number about 25,000,000 people. 

In Austria-Hungary the Little Russians are called by 
the Austrian government "Ruthenians," and by that name 
they are distinguished from those who come from Russia 
as immigrants to this country. They dwell on both sides 
of the Carpathian Alountains in Galicia, Bukowina, and 
northeastern Hungary. In Galicia they number about 3,750,- 
000, and are mostly Laiiats. In Bukowina they number 
750,000 and are almost all Orthodox. 

Religiously, the Little Russians are the most interesting 
of all the Slavic peoples, after the Bohemians. It was in the 
10th century that Vladimir, through the commercial relations 
which existed between Kiev and Constantinople, had his 
attention brought to the Christian religion. The story of 
his embassy of inquiry sent out to examine the German, 
Roman, JewTsh, and even the Mohammedan religions reads 
like a romance, but most of all the visit of that embassy to 
Constantinople, their attendance at Mass in the magnificent 
Church of Santa Sofia, the impression which the joyous sph^ndor 
of the Greek Eucharist made upon them, and their eager 
report which led to the establishment of the Orthodox Church 
in Russia. The Slavic Liturgy was already in use in Bulgaria, 
Servia, and Bohemia, and the Russians took to it with an 
avidity to be expected from those who find a religion already 


ostablishcd in their native touf^ue. Kiev l»ecaiiie tlie center 
of missionary activity, which radiated in e\-er\- direction, 
reachinjj; northward ainonji; the Clreat Russians, so that wlien 
the llussian nation began to form, tlie mass of the people were 
ah'eady Ortho(h)x Christians. 

Owing to the incursions of the Turks, the Metropolitan 
of Kiev was nioNcd northwartl to Moscow in 1320, but in 
1414 the seven bishops in southern Russia met and elected 
a Metropolitan of Kiev. Siiortly after the Utraquist movement 
established a national church in Bohemia which seemed likely 
to effect a compromise with the Roman Church (in 1436), 
an effort was made by some of the Little Russian bisliops 
to effect a similar treaty with Rome, and Isidore, the Metro- 
politan of Moscow, attended the Council of Florence (1434- 
1442), hoping that some form of union might be worked out. 
Nothing was accompHshed however. When the Metropolitan 
of Moscow was made Patriarch of Moscow, the Little 
Russians became directly dependent upon the Patriarch of 
Constantinople, but the influence of Constantinople was so 
weakened by the Turks that the Orthodox bishops and people 
of the Little Russians were much neglected. The Jesuits 
then began to move out from their strongly intrenched position 
among the Poles with a determination to effect a union of 
the Little Russians in Poland with the Church of Rome. 
Both Poland and Bohemia had been won over to the Latin 
Rite and obedience to Rome after centuries of strife and 
war, and from her experience with the Bohemians the Church 
of Rome was willing, if need be, to compromise with the 
Little Russians in Poland. Some of the Orthodox bishops 
from Lithuania and Poland met together with the Jesuits 
at Brest-Litovsk in 1595 and the result was a compromise 
practically in the form of a Utraquist Church. The con- 
cessions made by the Orthodox were that they should pray 
for the Pope and recite the Double Procession in the Creed. 
In December, 1595, Pope Clement issued the bull "Magnus 
Dominus" in which he said: ^'For the better expression of 
our love toward them we permit and concede to the Ruthenian 
bishops and clergy all the sacred rites and ceremonies which 
the Ruthenian bishops and clergy use, accordijig to the institution 
of the Holy Greek Fathers, in the Divine Service, the 7nost Holy 
Sacrifice of the Mass, and the administration of the Sacraments 
or other sacred rites, because they are not against the truth and 
doctrine of the Catholic faith, and do not exclude communion 
with the Roman Church." 

On October 6, 1596, this bull was proclaimed in the Russian 
part of Poland and was ratified by the bishops to whom it 


was addressed. The compromise was practically all on the 
part of Rome, for the ^^lavic liturgy, the administration of 
the Sacrament in both kinds to the laity, and the marriage 
of tiie clergy were all conceded. The Union was called the 
United Greek Church, and its adherents Uniats. In the 
struggle for supremacy the Roman Church, seeking to 
emphasize her catholicity, calls the Uniat the "Greek Catholic 

After the Second and Third Partition of Poland, in 1793 
and 1794, the Little Russians who were in the parts ceded 
to Russia gradually returned from the Uniat Church to the 
Russian. As Galicia was ceded to Austria in the First Partition 
of Poland, the Little Russians dwelling there remained Uniats. 

In the present Pan-Slavic movement there is a large senti- 
ment in favor of the Pravoslav (Orthodox) Church, and there 
is a tendency- on the part of the enthusiastic Orthodox to 
swing over the Uniats in Austria from the Roman Communion 
by Russian nationalistic societies among the peasants in 
Galicia, and members of the Roman Church protest against 
the converting of Uniats to the Russian Church. On the 
other hand, members of the Russian Church declare that 
Roman ceremonies are being introduced into the Slavic rite, 
and that celibacy is quietly being impressed upon the younger 
clergy in Galicia, who are now entirely under the training 
of the Jesuits. In 1903 several villages went over to the 
Orthodox Communion, and when they endeavored to obtain 
Orthodox priests from Bukowina it was found to be either 
illegal or impossible to do so. The latest development is 
this, that in 1911 several young Ruthenian Galicians obtained 
Holy Orders in convents of the Greek Church in Mount Athos 
and in Russia, and these have returned to Galicia, where 
the contest is now becoming more and more acute. 

The Pan-Slavic movement is naturally favored by Russians, 
and in this unrest the influence of the southern Orthodox 
Slavs is increasingly felt. To the Slavs of the south the Uniat 
compromise is an act of treason, and Slavic nationality and 
the religion of the Pravoslav are identical. The Ruthenian 
hatred of the Poles who control the political situation in 
Galicia also has a bearing on the controversy, for the Poles 
regard themselves as the natural guardians of the Roman 
Catholic Church. To combat the Pan-Slavic movenirent, 
Roman Catholic adherents have fostered the formation of 
the counter-movement of the "Unislav League." 

1. The Little Russians, from Russia. 
As far as can be ascertained with any probability the 


nuijority of Russians who arc iiniiiifi;r:ints to tliis country 
arc the Litth' Russians, the W'liitc Russians hcinji; aiu(^ng 
tlic hitcr ininiif>;rauts. \\'hatc\(r cini<i;ration of the Great 
Russians there may he is directed to northwest Canada. The 
United States inunif^ration antl census reports inchuh; Jews 
from Russia as '' IJussians,'' ))ut Jews are cosmo])ohtan and 
emigrate as Jews no matter from wliat country they may 
leave, so that for our purposes the government reports are 
of only i)artial value. The best way at present to estimate 
the numl)er of Little Russians who have come from Russia 
to tiiis country is to get at tlic numljcr of meml)ers reported 
by the Russian Orthotlox Church. In the religious census 
of 19()() the Russian Church reported a membership of 20,000, 
including converts from the Uniat Ruthenians in . America. 
There are })robably a good many thousand scattered Russian 
Orthodox, either too few to form a congregation in any locality 
or else only temporarily in this country. Those who have 
studied the matter mak(> estimates ranging from 100,000 to 
200,000, the majority of which number are Little Russians. 
There are some Russian Protestants in the United States. 
Among the Mennonites in the West there are perhaps 10.000 
from Russia in South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma 
(not elsewhere). These, however, although perhaps reported 
as Russians, are descendants of the (Jerman Mennonites 
who were translated from Lithuania to Crimea at the end 
of the 18th century and have been coming to this country 
since 1863. There are also reported a few "Stundists" who 
have been reached by the Baptists in North Dakota, and 
these are from southern Russia. 

2. The Little Russians, from Austria (Ruthenians). 

The Little Russians from Galicia are called Ruthenians 
by the Austrian government, and are so known in this country. 
They have been coming to the United States since 1880. 
The Ruthenians who come from Bukowina almost all go 
to Canada. The Ruthenians, it will be remembered, are 
Uniats in Galicia and Orthodox in Bukowina. There are 
about 300,000 Ruthenians in the United States, working in 
the factories of Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Connecticut, 
and Massachusetts. They are very ardent in their religion 
and soon desire a priest. Whenever they settle in any numbers 
they promptly buy lots and build their own houses and a 
church. In their native land they have been a poor and 
hard working people, yet they are of fine physical endurance 
and are eager to learn. The number in New England, roughly 
estimated, is as follows: — 


Maine 250 

New Hampshire 1,000 

Vermont 350 

Massachusetts 5,000 

Rhode Island 750 

Connecticut 7,500 

The first Ruthenian Uniat priest who came with his wife 
to the United States was met with the suspicion of his brother 
priests of the Roman CathoHc Church, and had great difficulty 
in being recognized by the Roman bishops to whom he brought 
his credentials. Even to-day with more than 80 churches, 
some of them costing between S50,000 and $100,000 and 
often the finest church in the town, the Uniats are nevertheless 
regarded with distrust by the majority of the Roman Catholic 
laity, who have been taught the celibacj^ of the clergy almost 
as a matter of faith. Especially do the ardent Irish find 
it hard to reconcile the existing conditions, for to them the 
married clergy with their wives and families are a great scandal. 
The Uniats, with their Easter weeks later, with their 
strange churches, the great iconostas hiding the altar, the 
icons. Mass in the Slavic language, and the bearded priests, 
present so unfamiliar a sight to the ordinary Romanist, even 
to a priest, that the natural result is almost a feeling of antip- 
athy. An Irish American bishop is confronted with the 
difficult problem of reconciling his Irish, Polish, German, 
and French Canadian celibate clergy with his Ruthenian 
married clergy. In the religious census report for 1906 the 
Russian Orthodox Church converts from the Uniat Church 
are explained in this way: "The members of these [Uniat] 
churches on coming to America found themselves compelled 
to use the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church, and be 
under the jurisdiction of local bishops who in general either 
knew nothing about the Unia or did not take it into account. 
In seeking relief from this position one of the Uniat parishes 
in Minneapolis became aware of the existence in the United 
States of a see of the Russian Orthodox, and in 1891, under 
the leadership of the Rev. Alexis G. Toth, petitioned the 
Russian Bishop Vladimir to take them all under his jurisdiction 
within the pale of the Russian Church. Bishop Vladimir 
willingly complied with the request, and during the time 
of Bishop Nicholas, who succeeded him, the example of the 
parish in Minneapolis was followed by a number of Uniat 
parishes." A large part of the Russian churches in America 
at present are built up of converted Ruthenian Uniats to the 
number of about 40,000, and the priests of the Russian hierarchy 
in this country are mostly Little Russians. 


The Konian Catliolics have now two Tiiiat bishops resident 
in America, hut in many Uniat parishes the churches are 
being built without the iconostas, celibacy is being made 
more pn^valent among the clergy, and many of the priests 
are smooth-sliaven, so that the difference between the Uniats 
and the regular Eomanists is not so evident to the ordinary 

The churches reported in 190G as using the Russian (and 
Ruthenian) language arc as follows. In the case of the Roman 
Catholic Church, however, there are added the parishes 
reporting the use of the Slavic or Greek, the deduction being 
that these are Ruthenian Uniats. 

Russian Orthodox GO churches, 20,000 members. 

Roman Catholic 

(Uniat) 96 churches, 93,800 members. 

Baptist 1 church, 490 members. 

Seventh Day 

Adventists 1 church, 50 members. 

Dr. H. K. Carroll reports for the year 1912, 

Russian Orthodox. . . . 127 churches, 62,000 members. 

The missionary work of the Russian Church among the 
Slavic immigrants in this country is most commendable. 
There is an Archbishop in New York assisted by a Bishop, 
and the Pravoslav or Eastern Orthodox of the Slavic Rite 
are ministered to by over 150 Russian, Albanian, Bulgarian, 
and Servian priests, besides 15 missions in Alaska. 


Empire of the Tsars and Russians. (3 vols.) By A. 
Le Roy Beaulieu, Translated by Z. A. Ragozin. New York, 

Russian Life in Town and Country. By Francis 
H. E. Palmer. New York, 1901. 

The Russian Advance. By Albert J. Beveridge. New 
York, 1904. 

Russia, in the "Story of the Nations" Series. By WiUiam 
R. Morfill. New York, 1890. 

Conversion of the West: The Slavs. By Rev. G. F. 
Maclear. London (S. P. C. K.), 1879. 

Russian Orthodox Missions. By Ver}-- Rev. Eugene 

Russia and Reunion. Translated by Rev. C. R. Davey 

Joyful Russia (especially the remarks in Chap. 24). 
By John A. Logan, Jr. New York, 1897. 


Our Greek Catholics. By Andrew J, Shipman, in 
the Messenger, a Roman Catholic magazine, September- 
December, 1904, gives an account of the Uniat Little Russians 
or "Ruthenians." 

In the Review of Rei'ieics, July, 1911, is given an account 
of the Roman Catholic Unislav League. 

The article on Russia in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
11th Edition, is very full and excellent. 

In the United States Religious Census Report of 1906. a 
good account is given of the work and organization of the 
Russian Church in America up to that date. 

In the Living Church, August 3, 1912, is a communication 
from Count Bobrinsky on Religious Persecutions in 


It is a strange paradox that our hard working laborers 
in mines and steel mills are Alpine peasants, yet the "Griners" 
are the Slovenes or Slqvenians who dw'ell in the Eastern Alps 
in the Austrian provinces of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, 
and northern Istria. They number 1,500,000 people in these 
provinces. Much of the mountainous land they struggle 
to cultivate is nearly barren, yet very few Slovenes live in 
cities, and even in provinces where nearly the entire population 
is Slovenian the city and town population is mostly German. 

The Slovenes are practically all Roman Catholic, converted 
to Christianity through their close contact with the Roman 
world in the sixth and seventh centuries. They are not 
related to the Croatians who come from the province of Croatia- 
Slavonia, although the United States immigration returns 
group them together. All that the Slovenes have in common 
with the Croatians is that they are Roman Catholic and 
not Orthodox. There may arise some confusion from the 
name of the Croatian province, Croatia-Slavonia. It is also 
another common mistake to think of the Slovenes and the 
Slovaks as being the same people. 

The Slovenes have been coming to America in large numbers 
since 1893, mostly from the province of Carniola (German 
Krain, from which they are often commonly called "Griners"). 
There are 100,000 in the United States, mostly at work in 
the mines and rolling mills of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, 
Michigan, and Colorado. There are some farmers in the 
northwestern states. Probably few Slovenes, if any, are 
to be found in New England. 

The Roman hierarchy has two Slovenian bishops in the 
United States. They are not Uniats, but use the Roman 


liturji>-. Tlific :in" 10 SIon ciiiaii i)ri<'sts, and there iiiiist 
l)e neai"l\' as iiiaii>' cliurrlies, litit t liei'e were r('|)oite(l in l'.)()G 
()iil\ 12 cluirches, with 'JM. ()()() iiieiiihers. 

iuHi,i()(;i:Ani\ ox Tiii'; si-()Vi:\i:s 

OiK Slavic Fki-low ("rrizi;\s. \\\ llniily (i. liah'h. 
New York, IfllO. 

The article oii the Slovkxes in the iMicyclopediti l^ritau- 
iiic'u, lltli Edition, is viut'ortunately very short. 


In the first migrations of the Slavic jx'oples, one race 
settled in the western half of the Balkan peninsula, spreading 
eastward from the shores of the Adriatic halfway across 
to the Bhick Sea. This race is known as the Croat-Serb, 
and as early as the 7th century they were recognized by the 
Eastern emperor. They are found to-day in their original 
location, Croatia-Slavonia, Istria, Bosnia, Herzegovina, south- 
ern Hungary, the kingdoms of Servia and Montenegro, and 
Old Servia in Turkey (Novibazar and Monastir). It is deplor- 
able that this single race should be broken up into a numl)er 
of artificial political divisions, namely, two kingdoms of their 
own, provinces of Austria and of Hungary, and a Turkish 
province. In spite of this, the feeling of common blood 
and a common language is drawing them more and more 
closely together and they seem almost sure to become a single 
nation in time. 

The United States immigration reports of these people 
are very perplexing, not only because the Croatians are grouped 
with the Slovenes, but because a distinct race, the Bulgarians, 
are grouptnl with the Servians of Montenegro and Servia. 
The Croatians and Servians coming from the provinces of 
Dalmatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina are also grouped together 
in a sj^ecial class by themselves. The classification of these 
immigrants, however, must be difficult, for much depends 
upon the way in which the official questions are put and 
answers made. For instance, an immigrant from Bosnia 
if asked his province would give Bosnia and would be reported 
accordingly. But if he were asked his nationality he would 
answer either Croatian or Servian as the case might l)e, and 
if Croatian he would be classed with Croatians and Slovenians, 
while if Servian he would perhaps be reported from Bulgaria, 
Servia, or Montenegro. 



It is convenient to distinguish the people of this race 
who use the Roman alphabet and the western calendar as 
Croats. Their language is precisely the same as that of the 
Serbs when spoken, but their proximity to the Latin world 
has brought them more into line with western Europe. The 
coast of Dalmatia was a natural field for Roman missions, 
and gradually Christianity worked northward into Istria 
and Croatia-Slavonia, and those of the race Avho were thus 
converted are called Croats. These Roman Catholic Slavs, 
or Croats, are found in Croatia-Slavonia (where they form 
three quarters of the population), Istria, northern Bosnia, 
and northern Dalmatia. They number about 2,500,000 
people; their occupation is agricultural, but all their land is 
rocky and poor or else is heavilj- Avooded. 

In 1840 the Hungarians began to Magyarize the Servian 
tongue, and separated the Croats and Serbs, favoring the 
former. Then the Austrian government aided the Serbs as 
against the Croats in Croatia-Slavonia, but favored the Croats 
against the Serbs in Bosnia. Later the younger Croats and 
Serbs began a movement looking toward a Serbo-Croat coali- 
tion, and in 1906 they worked together assisting Hungary 
against Austria. 

The Croats show their Slavic disposition by insisting on 
the use of the ancient western Slavic alphabet called the 
Glagolytic in the service books of the Church. Nevertheless 
in all struggles between Latin and Slavic elements in districts, 
near the seacoast every settlement is in favor of the Latin. 

It is estimated that there are about 300,000 Croats in the 
United States, working as laborers in mines, rolling mills, 
and packing houses, principally in Pennsylvania and Illinois. 
There may be 250 in New England. 

The Croats are all Roman Catholic. There are almost 
no Protestants among them, but the Baptists are doing a 
small work among lapsed Roman Catholics in this country. 
The 1906 religious census report gives 26 Roman Cathohc 
churches with 36,800 members using the Croatian language, 
but this is very incomplete. The Croats are willing to worship 
with Slovaks, Slovenians, Germans, and Italians, so that 
they would naturally not be distinguished in parochial reports. 


Despite their partition into several political divisions, 
the Serbs remain one people, distinct and homogeneous. They 
cannot be partitioned as were the Poles. Two independent 


Srrl) kiiij!;(l(>iiis already tonncd would lorhid tluit, and the 
character of the Serbs, donscdly persistent and uni)ertiirhed, 
is jj;reatly in contrast witii the Poles of two iiundred years 
ago, inipvilsive, uneducated, and ungoverucHl. 'J'here is, 
moreover, no religious dissension among these people, all 
being enthusiastic adherents of the Pravoslav Communi(ni, 
devoutly loyal to their Church, and convinced that Orthod(»xy 
is synonymous with nationalit\-. They use the Cyrillic 
alphabet and the eastern calendar. 

The Serbs number in all 0,500,000 people. Most of their 
land is heavily forested, but along the Danulic and in the 
valleys are grain fields and orchards. The extension of rail- 
ways and the building of automobile roads are developing 
l)oth agricultural and industrial progress. In the more remote 
regions apart from modern civilization some of these people 
live in patriarchal communities with several hundred persons 
in a "family," but this institution will doubtless soon become 
a thing of the past. 

As the Roman Church brought Christianity first to the 
extreme western Slavs, so in the East the Greek Church 
first touched the Serbs. They received the Slavic liturgy 
from Cyril and Methodius in the 9th century, and have always 
remained steadfast in the faith. In the 11th century the 
Servian Church was in danger of absorption by Rome in 
consequence of its desire to be free from the domination of 
Constantinople, but during the 13th century it became thor- 
oughly national, and in the 14th century there was an auton- 
omous Servian patriarch in Uskub. Since the 14th century 
the Serbs have held firmly aloof from the Church of Rome. 
During the 18th century a number of Serbs in Austria were 
induced to become Uniats in the reign of Alaria Theresa, 
but they returned to the Orthodox Church when Joseph II 
proclaimed the principle of religious toleration. 

The kingdom of Servia was indei)endent in the 11th century, 
and in the 14th century the Servian kingdom extended its 
campaigns of conquest into the Balkan peninsula until it 
included nearly all Albania, Monastir, and western Macedonia 
as far as Salonica. Stephen Dushan was crowned emperor 
of the Serbs and Greeks at Uskub in the year 1346. In 1389, 
however, the Turks overwhelmed the Serbs, pushing westward 
from Adrianople. The rulers of the Serbs who had not fallen 
in battle fled to the mountain fastnesses of Montenegro, 
and colonies of the people emigrated to southern Hungary 
and settled along the banks of the Danube, leaving but a 
remnant of the nation in Old Servia under the yoke of the 
Turks. From this time the history of the Serbs is one of 


long struggle against Turkish oppression and enforced submis- 
sion to European control. It is most convenient now to con- 
sider the Serbs in three divisions, Montenegro, Servia, and 
the Austro-Hungarian provinces. 

1. Montenegro. When, after the battle of Kossovo 
in 1389, the case of the Servian kingdom was hopeless, those 
of the ruling families who remained after the desolation fled 
into the mountains which rise precipitately from the shores 
of the Adriatic above the bay of Cattaro. Here they founded 
the little kingdom of Montenegro, and have maintained an 
independent existence for over 500 years. Montenegro (Black 
Mountain) is a mountain mass seamed with impregnable 
valleys. Vegetation is very limited, so that an invading 
army would find it quite impossible to maintain itself. The 
inhabitants have always fought off the Turks, and the worst 
that could be done was to keep the people in their natural 
fortress practically^ in a state of constant siege. In the treaty 
of 1878, at the close of the Turko-Eussian war, Montenegro's 
independence was recognized, and in 1910 it was acknowledged 
as a kingdom. 

The only profitable occupation of Montenegro is that of 
raising cattle. Otherwise the country is practically a military 
camp. The people patiently await the dawn of a new Servia 
and the extension of their territory below the mountains. The 
population is 350,000, all Serbs of the purest blood and adher- 
ents of the Orthodox Church. The Church of ^loutenegro 
is a national Church, and the metropolitan is the Archbishop 
of Cetinje (Tsettin),* but he also claims the ancient throne 
of Ipek. This metropolitanate is recognized by Constantinople 
and was founded in 1776. 

2. Servia. From 1804 to 1830 the people still left in 
Old Servia began to fight for their independence, carrying 
on a fierce guerrilla warfare. They were able to organize 
a government during this time, and were finally recognized 
as a principality by the Turkish government. In the revolt 
of the Serb people in 1876 the terrible atrocities led to the 
Turko-Russian war, and in the Treaty of Berlin, 1878, Servia 
was declared an independent principality. In 1882 the Prince 
of Servia took the title of king. The territory of present 
Servia is limited to less than half its proper extent. Belgrade 
is the capital city. Austria sought to keep Montenegro and 
Servia apart by reserving a strip of territory known as Novi- 
bazar between the two kingdoms still under Turkish rule. 
The Servians hope to extend their boundaries to include this 

*See tho lottor from tho Metropolitan of Montenegro to Bishop Parker, on 
page 10. 


and all Mouastir as for as Salonica. the Creek line, uiid a i)ait 
of the Adriatic coast land. 'I'lie war hetwcon Sorvia an<l 
Bulgaria in ISS") was iinl'ortunate and i)r(»(itl('ss, and must 
he laid to tlic account of misrule hy the Turks and opijressivc 
intorvention by the great powers of Europe. 

( )ne half the territory of Servia is forest. Along tiu; Danube 
are orchards and vineyards. The i)rin('ipal industry is the 
raising of cattle and swine. The farm products are maize 
(wdiieh forms the principal food of three quarters of the ])opula- 
tion), jilums (whieh are exported as prunes), and grapes. 
The exin)rtation of hogs is very great and is a cause for the 
Servian denuind for a seai)ort. The ])opidation of the kingdom 
of Servia is 2,500,000, of whicli 100, 000 are Rumanians. All 
are members of the Orthodox Church oi Servia, which is the 
established Church of the kingdom, and the metropolitan 
is the Arclibishop of Belgrade. The mctropolitanate was 
established in 1879. In 1895 nomination was made of a 
Servian metropolitan of Rascia for the sanjak of Novibazar, 
where there are more than 400,000 Servians. In 1897 a way 
was prepared for the seat of a Servian metropolitan in Uskub, 
replacing a Greek bishop there. 

3. The Austro-Hungarian Provinces. The Serbs in 
Austria-Hungary are subdivided into three sections: — 

(1) In the Banat there are 500,000 Serbs, and in Croatia- 
Slavonia, the population of which is 2,400,000, there are about 
600,000 Orthodox or Serbs (the rest, 1,800,000 being Roman 
Catholics or Croats). In the year 1679 emigrant Serbs from Old 
Servia found their way along the banks of the Danube into 
Hungary, and brought their Church wnth them. The ancient 
metropolitanate of Servia w^as re-established by them in the 
city of Carlowitz, but a few^ miles from Belgrade. This is now 
an independent autocephalous Church, and is called the 
"Servian Orthodox Church in Hungary, Croatia, and Slavonia." 
The Archbishop of Carlowitz w^as proclaimed patriarch by 
the Servian Assembly at Carlowitz in 1848. In 1868 the 
government legally asserted that the "Non-United Eastern 
Greeks" should form two archbishoprics of equal privilege, 
a Servian at Carlowitz and a Rumanian at Hermannstadt. 

(2) In southern Dalmatia there are a])out 100,000 Serbs. 
These could not be under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch 
of Constantinople, as his authority was limited to Turkish 
provinces. Therefore these, with 550,000 "Ruthenian" (Little 
Russian) Orthodox in Bukowina. were united under one Ortho- 
dox archbishop as an autocephalous church, known as the 
IVIetropolitan Church Province of Bukowina and Dalmatia. 
The seat of the archbishop is Czernowitz in Bukowina. 


(3) In 1878 the Powers of Europe gave Bosnia and Herze- 
govina into the hands of Austria-Hungary. The people in 
the northern part of these two provinces are Roman Catholic 
and therefore called Croats. In the southern part of Bosnia 
there are 800,000 Serbs and in Herzegovina 200,000. These 
have no definite Church organization as yet, but are nominally 
under the supervision of the Patriarch of Constantinople. 
They are satisfied at present with the arrangement, but would 
prefer to appoint a metropohtan archbishop for themselves. 
The right to nominate bishops to vacant sees hes with the 
Emperor of Austria. 

These three divisions of the Orthodox are all in communion 
with Constantinople. There remain in Dalmatia about 1,000 
Serb Uniats who have not yet returned to the Orthodox Church. 

There are about 150,000 Serbs in America at the highest 
estimate, and of these 10,000 are not in the United States. 
It is impossible to tell from the immigration reports from 
what countries the Serbs have come. Most, however, are 
probably from the Hungarian provinces. They have settled 
principally in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana, and in Kansas, 
Montana, and California. A very interesting development 
came about in Alaska. Formerly there were a number of 
Russians in Alaska, and the Russian Church carried on a 
successful mission work among the Indians and Eskimos. 
After the annexation to the United States many of the Russians 
returned to Russia, and the see of the Russian Bishop in 
America was removed from Sitka to San Francisco. In 1905 
the see was again removed to New York City, as the great 
bulk of the Russians in this country were now in the eastern 
states. In that very year Serbs from Montenegro and Servia 
were immigrating to Alaska, and there were now more Serbs 
in CaHfornia and Montana than there were Russians in all 
the states west of Pennsylvania. Consequently the center 
of the Servian Church was placed in California with an arch- 
imandrite as special administrator, and the orthodox work 
in Alaska was transferred from the Russian Church to the 
Servian. The Servian Church in America is under the protec- 
tion and supervision of the American Archbishop of the Russian 

The religious census report for 1906 is not of much value 
for statistics of these people. They are much scattered, 
and many attend the Russian churches. The report gives 
10 Servian Orthodox churches, with 15,742 members, but 
no report is given for Alaska. There are in Alaska 15 mission 
stations and 14 priests, with 12,000 communicants, this mem- 
bership being made up principally of half-breeds, Indians, 


and Eskimos, the rosult of the old l^ussitui missions. Dr. IT. 
K. Carroll rci)orts. for the year l'.»12, 24 cliiirclics, with .")<),()()() 
momhers, not includintf .\laska or Canatla. 



Servi.\, by the Servi.\ns. Compiled from various Servian 
writers, by Alfred Stead. London, 1909. 

The Servians, their History and Destiny. By 

Servia of the Servians. By C. Miyatovic. New- 
York, uni. 

Servia and the Servians. By C, Miyatovic. Boston, 

Dalmatia, the Land where East meets West. By 
Maude M. Holhach. London, 1908. 

Bosnia and Herzegovina. By Maude M. Holhach. 
London, 1910. 

Hungary and the Hungarians. By W. B. F. Bovill. 
New York, 1908. 

Through the Land of the Serb. By M. E. Durham. 
London, 1904. 

The Balkans, in the "Story of the Nations" Series. 
By William Miller. New York, 1896. 

The Danger Zone of Europe. By H. C. Woods. 
Boston, 1911. 

Servia, Bosnia and the Slave Provinces. By Ranke. 
Bohn's Library, 1853. 

Our Slavic Fellow Citizens. By Emily A. Balch. 
New York, 1910. 

There is a good article on Servia in the Encyclopedia 
Britannica, Uth Edition. The article on Croatia-Slavonia 
is good reference for the Croats. 

In the Living Church for October 19 and December 14, 
1912, are articles on the Servian Church by Rev. T. J. Lacey. 


The Bulgarians were originally Slavic colonists who found 
their way along the banks of the Danube into the lands that 
had been laid waste by the military races of the Huns, the 
Avars, and the Goths. No sooner, however, had they settled 
down to reclaim the devastated fields and vineyartls than 
a new race of invaders swept in upon them, the advance 
tribes of the Turks. One of these tribes -was the Bulgars. 
Strange to say, this particular tribe was immediately absorbed 


by the peaceful agriculturists, losing language and all racial 
customs, giving only their name to the Slavic people who 
had assimilated them. In the 9th century, when Cyril and 
Methodius began their missionary labors among the Slavs, 
the Bulgarians were the first to receive the gospel, and the 
Old Slavonic language into which Cyril translated the Eastern 
liturgy was the Old Bulgarian. Some of the Latin clergy 
entered the land also and bid for loyalty to Rome, but in 877 
these were dismissed from the country, and Pope John VIII 
protested against the Greek proclivities of the Bulgarian 
Christians, but, nevertheless, strict union with Constantinople 
followed, and in 885, when the Slavonic priests were driven 
out of Bohemia on the death of Methodius, the}' took refuge 
in Bulgaria. 

In the 10th century Bulgaria became an independent 
kingdom, but was overthrown by Basil II, the Bysantine 
Emperor, early in the 11th century. In the year 1096, when 
the First Crusaders, led by Peter the Hermit, turned from 
the Danube down toward Constantinople, they began to 
plunder the Bulgarian farms and villages, appalling Eastern 
Christianity by their lawless barbarity. The indignant Bulga- 
rians fell upon them and slew thousands all along the route, and 
succeeding Crusaders were obliged to give hostages for their 
orderly conduct on their way through to Constantinople. In 
the 12th century the Vlach and Bulgarian population separated 
itself from the Byzantine Empire, and the Wallachian or 
Second Bulgarian kingdom was formed, extending its territory 
over all the Balkan peninsula as far south as the borders 
of Greece. When the Turks finally crossed the Hellespont, 
in 1360, took Adrianople and made it the first shrine of Moham- 
medanism in Europe, the Bulgarians felt the first effects of 
the Turkish conquests, soon falling under the yoke from 
which they never ceased thereafter to struggle to free them- 
selves. In the beginning of the 19th century occurred the 
awakening of Slavic racial consciousness, in which the Bul- 
garians shared, and in 1876 the Turks started to crush it. 
The world was horrified by the awful atrocities which followed, 
western Christendom stood aghast, but eastern Christendom 
came to the rescue, and Russia declared war. At the close 
of the Turko-Russian war, 1878, Bulgaria, as well as Servia, 
was made an independent tributary principality. Finally, 
with the continued friendly assistance of Russia, in 1908 
Bulgaria was proclaimed a kingdom, with the added territory 
of Eastern Rumelia, whose population was mainly Bulgarian. 

From the first the Bulgarians had been able to maintain 
the autonomy of their national Church, but in the 18th century 


they were nuitle sul)jcct to the Putriareh of ( "onstaiitiiioplc 
The Turkish j^overuiiicnt {^ranted autonomy anain 1o the 
Bulgarian Church in 1<S7(), and ininie<.liately thereafter soufi;ht 
to create dissensions Ix'tween the activities of tlic (Jrcci< and 
Bulgarian ehureiu's in the religiously neutral territories of 
Macedonia and Thracia, hoping thereby to weaken both. 
The Patriarch of Constantinople refusetl to recognize the 
autonomy of Bulgaria, and controversy followed as to the 
jurisdiction of the neutral territory. The Exarch of Bulgaria 
naturally claimed spiritual authority over all Bulgarians, 
hut the Patriarch disputed his authority in distinctly Turkish 
lands. This estrangement has unhappily continued until 
recently, when the war of 1912 healed the schism. The 
residence of the Exarch of Bulgaria has up to the present 
been Constantinople, but since the city of Sofia was modernized 
a si)lendid cathedral church has been building for his residence. 

The Bulgarians number about 5,000,000, divided as follows: 
in the kingdom of Bulgaria, 3,000,000; in Macedonia, 1,200,- 
000; in Thracia, 600,000; in Russia, 180,000; and in Rumania, 
100,000. During the past four years the railways under 
state ownership have been extended and have opened up 
the country wonderfully. Sofia, the present capital, in 1878 a 
collection of mud huts, is now a prosperous city with handsome 
modern buildings. The Bulgarians are a hardy and vigorous 
people, sober, industrious, and thrifty; thej' are rather reserved 
and serious minded, peaceable and orderly, and their standard 
of sexual morality is very high. Their patience, perseverance, 
and great endurance have brought them through all past 
oppression and enabled them at last to purchase their liberty 
through the sacrifice of war. Among the Bulgarians there 
are but 5,000 Roman Catholics and 2,500 Protestants. The 
aspersions cast upon Bulgarians by some Protestant mission- 
aries are cruelly unfair and unworthy of credit. It would 
seem unfortunate if Protestantism with its rationalizing and 
skeptical tendencies should be forced into the religion of 
these markedly unanimous and consistent Christian people. It 
should be noted that the work of (Mlucation carried on by 
Robert College in Constantinople has been of immense benefit 
to the Bulgarians, who have gratefully taken advantage of 
whatever educational assistance has been brought to them. 

The occupations of the Bulgarians have grown from those 
of simple peasant life to include the building of towns and the 
beginning of industrial work. The maintenance of the male 
population on a war footing, waiting for the final deliverance 
of the race by a decisive war with Turkey, has somewhat 
delayed the development of the land, although this also has 


been taken into consideration in preparing for the maintenance 
of the people during the contemplated struggle. In the war 
of 1912, the putting into the field an army of 450,000 men 
out of a population of 3,000,000 is evidence of the serious 
nature of the conflict. The products of Bulgaria are largely 
wheat and maize. Tobacco is also raised, and roses are 
cultivated for the manufacture of attar of roses. Modern 
machinery- and steam and electric power are being rapidly 
introduced, and it will be but a short time when there will 
be little reason for Bulgarians to emigrate from home. 

The Bulgarians are very recent immigrants in America, 
coming since the year 1904. There are about 40,000 now 
here, coming from Macedonia, and centering principally in 
Illinois, although they have pushed westward. In Penn- 
sylvania there is a small colony, and the Bishop of Harrisburg 
has interested himself in the building of their church in the 
town of Steelton. The men are vigorous workers, and have 
been working in construction gangs on the railroads and in 
steel mills. The Bulgarians are very interesting people, 
and they feel especially kindly toward the United States, 
from which they have received much national inspiration. 
It is within the province of the American Church to establish 
a firm fraternal relationship with their Church.* Dr. H. K. 
Carroll reports, for the year 1912, 3 Bulgarian organized churches 
with 20,000 members. 


The Bulgarian Exarchate, its History and the 
Extent of its Authority in Turkey. By Richard von 
Mach. Translated from the German. London, 1907. 

Conversion of the West: the Slavs. By Rev. G. F. 
Maclear. London (S. P. C. K.), 1879. 

The Danger Zone of Europe. By H. C. Woods. 
Boston, 1911. 

The East End of Europe. By Allen Upward. New 
York, 1909. 

The Balkans, in the "Story of the Nations" Series. By 
William Miller. New York, 1896. 

Fifty Years in Bulgaria. A pamphlet published by 
the American Board of the Congregational Church. Boston, 
1911. 10 cents. 

Charities and Commons, January 9, 1909, contains an 
article on the Bulgarians in Chicago. The Living' Church, 

*See the letter from the Exarch of Bulgaria to Bishop Parker on page 9. 


NovciiiIxT '2'A, nH'J, lia^ Mil article mi (lie Hul^iariaiis in Aiiifi- 
ica by Rev. T. .). Laccy. The Surrci/, Fcl). 1, \\)\'A. contaiiis 
some material aliout the T^ult^arians in (iranite City, 111. 

The Methodists puldish a small pamphlet on their work 
in liul<:;aria. 

The article on Hiloauia in the lOncyclopedia Britannica, 
1 1 111 JMlition, is excellent. 


The lUimauiaus are ealled Wallachs or \ lachs by tlieir 
Slavic neighbors. They inhabit what was ancient Dacia, 
and claim descent from th(> ancient Roman colonists of 
Thracia. Although these people do not consider themselves 
Slavs, there is nevertheless a large admixture of Slavish blood 
and they resemble the Slavs in many ways. Some students 
call them "Latinized Slavs," and the United States Commis- 
sioner General of Immigration includes them among the 
Slavic people. Lul)or Niederle, professor of ethnology in 
Prague University', and authority on the Slavs, does not, 
however, include the Rumanians among the Slav peoples. 

There were Christian bishops in Dacia in the time of 
Constantine. In the 9th century Bulgarian missionaries 
introduced the new Slavic liturgy of the ancient Greek Church 
among the Rumanians, and although this formed the religious 
language, the people never spoke Slavish. When the great 
Wallachian-Bulgarian empire was fornuul in the 12tli century. 
Pope Innocent III attempted to secure it to the Roman Church, 
but failed. The Turkish conquest utterly disintegrated the 
Rumanian nationality, and there followed centuries of strug- 
gling existence. There was long rivalry in Wallachia and 
Moldavia between the Church of Ochrida (which had suprem- 
acy over all Bulgaria and Wallachia) and the Church of Con- 
stantinople, and in the 15th century the supremacy of Con- 
stantinople was chosen. Two archbishops were appointed, 
the Archbishop of Wallachia, who was also "Exarch of Ungro- 
Vlachy and the Hills" and was thus placed over the Rumanians 
in Transylvania and Hungary, and the Archbishop of Moldavia 
over the province of that name. In 1699 Turkey ceded 
Transylvania to Austria, and immediately the Jesuits began 
to Romanize the Rumanians or Wallachians tliere, finally 
succeeding in l)ringing a jiart of them into tiie Uniat (Com- 

After the Turko-Russian war, 1878, Rumania was acknowl- 
edged as an independent kingdom. The boundaries of the 
kingdom, however, do not include more than 58 per cent 


of the Rumanian people. They are a pastoral not an agri- 
cultural people, and therefore have been able to perpetuate 
their existence in separated mountainous districts through 
all the incursions of the agricultural Slavs and military Tura- 
nians. In the north they have become intermixed with the 
Slavs, and in the extreme south with the Greeks. They 
are found in the mountains of Transylvania and Bukowina, 
on the frontiers of Galicia, and on the southern slopes of 
the Carpathians extending to the Black Sea between the 
Dniester and the Danube rivers. The Rumanians number 
0,500,000 people, disastrously divided, and distributed as 
follows: in free Rumania, 5,500,000; in Transylvania, 1,500,- 
000; in Russia, 1,100,000; in Bukowina and elsewhere in 
Austria, 800,000; in Macedonia and Thracia, 300,000; in Servia, 
200,000; in Bulgaria, 100,000. In the Pindic region Rumanian 
statisticians claim 500,000 people, but this claim is disputed 
by both Greeks and Bulgarians, although the Rumanians 
who make this claim admit that these are largely Hellenized. 
The Rumanians, as has been said, are largely a pastoral 
people. Bucharest, the capital, is noted for its social gayety. 
The Rumanian Church is national and in union with the 
whole Eastern Church. In the 17th century the Slavic lan- 
guage was replaced by the Rumanian in the liturgy, and 
the Greek language, which had found its way into the churches 
of the towns, was also replaced. There are two independent 
Rumanian Churches, owing to the political division of the 
race, but these are in full intercommunion. 

1. The national Church of Rumania is governed by the 
Holy Synod of Rumania, whose president, the Archbishop 
of Bucharest, is Archbishop and Metropolitan of Hungaro- 
Wallachia and Primate of all Rumania. The north province 
of Moldavia is under the Metropolitan of Jassy, who is called 
the Archbishop of Moldavia. There are 5,400,000 adherents 
of the national Church. 

In Rumania there are but 100,000 Uniats. 

2. The independent Rumanian Orthodox Church in 
Hungary is composed of the Wallachs in Transylvania and 
southern Hungary, where the adherents numl)er 1,700,000. 
The Archbishop of Hermannstadt is Metropolitan of the 
Orthodox Rumanians in Hungary and Transylvania. 

There is a province of Rumanian Uniats in Transylvania 
and eastern Hungary, numbering aljout 1,000,000 people, 
governed by an archbishop and two bishops, and 400,000 
elsewhere in Austria-Hungary. They use the Old Rumanian 
language in the liturgy, just as the Orthodox do. 

The Rumanians have been coming to this country since 


1902. There arc now 100,000 licic 'I'lic in New 
England is about as follows: — 

Now Ihunpsliirc 2') 

Vermont -i") 

Massachusetts. 12.') 

Rhode Island 00 

Connecticut -iOO 

In the religious census of 1906 there were reported in this 
country as using the Rumanian language: — 

Rumanian Orthodox 1 church, 300 members. 

Roman Catholic (Uniat). . .1 church, 1,700 members. 

Dr. II. K. Carroll r(>i)orts for the year 1912:— 
Runuinian Orthodox. . . .5 churches, 20,000 members. 


From Carpathi.\ to Pindus. Pictures of Rumanian 
Country Life. By Tereza Stratilesco. London, 1900. This 
book is especially valuable and full of information. 


Francis H. E. Palmer. New York, 1903. 

The Balkans, in the "Story of the Nations" Series. 
By William Miller. New York, 1890. 

History of the Orthodox Church in Austria-Hungary: 
Hermannstadt. By M. G. Dampier. 

The article on Rumania in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
11th Edition, is excellent. 


The Magyars are a remarkably interesting people. They 
are the ruling race in Hungary and therefore are frequently 
and by many always called Hungarians. They are of Turanian 
stock, and came from Asia into Hungary about 1000 A. D. 
The Greeks called them Ungroi, from which comes Hungarians, 
but they call themselves Magyars. They did not entirely 
drive out the Slavic inhabitants, and did not even absorb 
them, but lived side by side with them, keeping political 
control however. By intermarriage and other influences 
the Magyars have been more or less Slavicized. R. G. Latham 
in his "Ethnology of Europe" (chapter 11) says: "That 
a Magyar female ever made her way from the Ural Mountains 
to Hungary is more than I can find; the presumptions being 
against it. Hence it is just possible that a whole-blooded 
Magyar was never l)orn on the banks of the Danube." The 


Magyars submitted, with the Slovenes and Croatians, to 
the German civihzing process, and became thoroughly Euro- 
peanized and loyal adherents of the Roman Catholic Church, 
When the Turkish tribes of Asia followed after them into 
Europe, it was the Magyars, with the Slavs and Germans, 
that formed the main defense of Christian Europe against 

Although a minority, the Magyars dominate Hungarian 
politics, and the Magyar language is the official language 
of court and society and is enforced in the schools of Hungary. 
They number nearly 9,000,000 people, dwelling together 
with Slavs and Germans in the great plains on both sides 
of the Danube and the Theiss, and in the hill country of 

The Germans in Hungary introduced Lutheranism and, 
shortly after, Calvinism. For some reason Calvinism especially 
appealed to the Magyar mind, and soon all the nobility became 
Protestants. The peasants accepted the new religion of their 
overlords, but when the influence of the court at Vienna 
drew the nobles back to the Roman Catholic Church, the 
peasants refused to change their faith again. The upper 
classes, too, who were not influenced by the court, remained 
Protestant, so that the more prosperous country people and 
peasants continued stout Calvinists. To-day one half of 
the Magyars are Roman Catholics, and the other half are 
members of the Reformed Church. The Protestants have 
a well educated ministry, many of them graduates of the 
English and Scotch universities. 

The Magyars who live in the eastern borderland of Tran- 
sylvania are called Szeklers. They number about 800,000 
people. The large proportion are Roman Catholic, although 
they are rather lax in their observance of the Church seasons. 
Calvinism was introduced in 1557, and a branch of the Reformed 
Church was organized. But in the year 1568 Socinianism 
was widely embraced, and the Reformed church became 
Socinian. There were 400 Socinian churches regularly organ- 
ized among the Szeklers in Transylvania, but during two 
centuries the membership gradually declined. It is now 
called the Hungarian Unitarian Church. Four Unitarian 
periodicals are published, and there is a Unitarian college 
with 2,000 students. These Unitarian Szeklers are among 
the small landowners and prosperous peasantry, and number 
80,000 people. They have 116 ministers, presided over by 
an officer termed a Bishop. 

There are about 300,000 Magyars in the United States. 
The greater part are in the Pennsylvania mines, and in factories 


in Now York, Now Jorsoy, and Ohio. In New KiiRliUul tliore 
aro as follows: — 

Maino •')0 

Now lliunpshiro 25 

\onnout 300 

Massachusetts GOO 

Rhodo Island 50 

C'onnooticui 9,000 

Tho Protestant Magyars coming to this country at first 
identified thoniselv(>s naturally with tho Reformed churches 
here, tho Dutch Reformed and the Presbyterian. In 1904 
where there were sufficient members to form independent 
congregations, they separated themselves and organized the 
Hungarian Reformed Church in America. They now receive 
their ministers and financial aid from their mother church in 

There were reported in the religious census of 1906, for 
Magyars: — • 

Roman Catholic 20 churches, 26,472 members. 

Hungarian Reformed. . . 11 churches, 5,253 members. 

Dutch Reformed 12 churches, 2,243 members. 

Presbyterian 17 churches, 4,052 members. 

There is a large congregation of Magyars of the Hungarian 
Reformed Church in Bridgeport, Conn. 


The Millennium of Hungary and its People. Edited 
by J. de Jekelfalussy. (In English.) Budapest, 1897. 

Austro-Hungarian Life in Town and Country. By 
Francis H. E. Palmer. New York, 1903. 

Hungary, in the "Story of the Nations" Series. By 
Armenius Vamberg. New York. 

On the Trail of the Immigrant. By Edward A. Steiner. 
Chicago, 1906. 

The first book in this list is one of great value and gives 
a careful account of the ecclesiastical organizations in Hungary. 

In the United States Religious Census Report of 1906, 
an account is given of the organization of the Hungarian 
Reformed Church in the United States. 

The Unitarians of the United States keep in touch with 
the Unitarian Magyars of Transylvania. (See their annual 



In the extreme west of Russia, from the Baltic Sea east- 
ward between the Duna and Niemen rivers, there dwells 
a race, the Lithuanians, speaking a language which on the 
one side resembles the Slavic while on the other side it is 
nearest the Sanskrit. One ancient branch of the Lithuanians, 
the Borussians, has been wholly absorbed by the Germans, 
although its name has been perpetuated in "Prussia." 

In the 13th century Lithuania became a great heathen 
state and extended its power southward to the Black Sea. 
In 1386, when Poland and Lithuania were united, Jagellon, 
Duke of Lithuania, was baptized and established Christianity 
among his people, and from that time until 1794 Lithuania 
formed a part of Poland. From the most stubborn heathen 
condition the people were converted by the persistent work 
of the Roman Church, but Polish ecclesiastics were again 
and again confronted by total relapses of whole tribes. In 
the Second and Third Partitions of Poland, in 1793 and 1794, 
all of the territory of the Lithuanians was ceded to Russia. 

There are two distinct sub-races of these people, the Lith- 
uanians proper and the Letts. 

1. The Lithuanians proper. These people number about 
2,000,000. Their occupation is almost wholly primitive 
agriculture and the raising of cattle on the low and level plains 
between the Duna and Niemen rivers. Those dwelling in 
the provinces of Kovno and Suvalki are called Samogitians 
or Zhmud, and they are not much Slavicized; their adherence 
is almost wholly to the Roman Catholic Church. Those 
living in Vitebsk (which was in Poland) Avere originally Ortho- 
dox, but became Roman Catholic in the 16th century; many 
since the Partition of Poland have returned to the Russian 
Church. There are a few Lutherans among the Lithuanians, 
but it is not certain that these are not Letts at least )\y inter- 

The Lithuanians began coming to America in 1868, driven 
out by famine, and there are now 200,000 in the United States. 
Most of these immigrants are to be found in the coal mining 
regions of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, but there are 
about 30,000 in New England, principally in Boston, Worcester, 
Brockton, Hartford, and Bridgeport. In cities they prefer 
to work in the factories and mills, their home training not 
fitting them for ordinary farming. 

In New England they number about as follows: — 

Maine 1,000 

New Hampshire 800 


V(>nii()Mt 200 

iMiissucliusetts 18,000 

Hluxlc I.sland 400 

Connecticut S,000 

Tlic religious census ol" IDOG reports for the Lithuanians: — 

Ronuiii Catholic '50 churches, 82,530 members. 

Lutheran 7 churches, 400 hk iiihers. 

Since 190G, however, the Lithuanians in this country have 
more than trebled, and it must also he stated that numbers 
have become more or less socialistic and do not attend the 
services of the Roman Churcli. 

2. The Letts. These people number about 1,500,000 
l)('oi)l('. They inhabit the Courland jx'ninsula about the 
C.ulf of Ri^a and the western part of Vitebsk. They are 
tall and fair, showing the admixture of Scandinavian blood. 
They are a thrifty, agricultural people, and find occupation 
often in the employ of Russians. On large estates in Russia 
the head farmer, the farm hands, and the dairy women are 
very likely to be Letts, and generous employers make arrange- 
ments for these farm hands to return to their homes from 
time to time for religious privileges, as most of the Letts 
are Lutherans. The Letts of Mtebsk became Roman Catholic 
as did the Lithuanians, but they and those in Courland came 
under the full influence of the Scandinavians, who, after the 
Reformation, brought in the Lutheran doctrines, so that 
but 50,000 are Orthodox and a few are Roman Catholic. 

These immigrants came first to the Pennsylvania mines, 
then to New York, New Jersej^ Massachusetts, and Con- 
necticut, working in factories. Some have settled down as 
small farmers in New England. There are now about 35,000 
Letts in the United States. 

The religious report of 1906 gives for the Letts: — 

Lutheran 7 churches, 378 members. 

BaptLst 3 churches, 305 members. 

There are so many more of these people here, however, since 
1906 that these figures are of little use to-day. 


Aliens or Americ.\ns. By Howard B. Grose. New 
York, 1906. 

Conversion of the West. The Slavs. By Rev. G. F. 
Maclear. London (S. P. C. K.), 1879. 


In Charities and Commons for December 3, 1904, there 
is an article on The Lithuanians in America b}^ Kaupas. 

There is an article on the Lithuanians and Letts in the 
Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, which is good, but 
unfortunately very short. 



By the Rev. John Higginson Cabot, Boston, Mass. 


The i)riinitiv(' and uuvuryiuK tradition of the Arnicnian 
Churcii is that she owes her foundation to the Apostles S8. 
Thaddeus and Bartholomew. It was not, however, till the 
Ix'jiinninji; of the 4th eentury tiiat Christianity became 
the prevailing religion in Armenia. The complete conversion 
of the people was due to the great S. Gregory, the Illuminator, 
the patron saint of the nation ever since. He became head 
of the Armenian Church and he it was who gave definite 
shape to her Liturgy. His reign was a time of prosperity, 
but was followed by many centuries of almost unexampled 

The history of the Armenians indeed is nearly unique. 
Not only have this peoi)le l)een subjected to endless wars 
with various neighbors, but for a large part of their history 
they have had no country of their own, properly speaking, 
l)ut have either been subjects of some powerful alien ruler, 
or else, as of late, like the modern Poles, their country has 
been divided between various neighbors. To-day, there is 
no such state as Armenia. There are only Armenians. Some 
live in Russian territory, some in Turkish. One wonders 
that there are any Armenians still surviving, so fierce and 
incessant have been the wars, invasions, persecutions. The 
Armenian state long since ceased to be, but the Armenian 
Church has retained her candlestick and has been one of 
the chief bonds uniting those who by race are Armenians, 
though by citizenship of various countries. 

During the first half of the 5th century Armenia was 
annexed to the kingdom of Persia. A determined effort 
was made by the Persians to uproot Christianity in Armenia 
and to replace it by the religion of Zoroaster. Armenia was 
fighting for her very heart's blood and the struggle was truly 

It was just at this time, 451, tliut the Fourth Ecumenical 
Council of the Church was held at Chalcedon. This Council 
completed the definitions of the Third Ecumenical Council 
of Ephesus. At Ephesus the Church had defined the union 
between the human and Divine Natures of our Lord as indis- 
soluble, and at Chalcedon that the two Natures are unconfus- 

* Compiled by the Rev. .1. H. Cabot from " The Church of Armenia" by 
His Hohness, the former Armenian I'atriarcli of Constantinoi)le, Malacliia 


edly two, though united in the one Person of God Incarnate, 
The heresy refuted at Chaleedon, known as Monophysitism, 
or Eutychianism from its chief protagonist, was that the 
union between the two Natures was so close as to be a fusion, 
so that in the one Person of Christ there is only one Nature. 

The Armenians were not represented at Chalcedon. Inter- 
nal troubles prevented it. When a calmer period came, 
and the definitions of the Council were made known to the 
Armenian Church, misunderstandings arose and partly at 
least because of a poor translation of the definition, the Ar- 
menians refused to accept this dogmatic utterance of the 
Church. Yet their belief would seem to be so nearly that 
of Orthodox Christianity as to make a complete harmony 
possible. The Armenian Liturgy is perhaps the best proof 
of this statement. Archdeacon Dowling says in his "Ar- 
menian Church": — 

"In the controversy concerning the two Natures in Christ, 
the Armenian Church has been cruelly misrepresented by 
the majority of historians. The opinion enunciated at the 
Lambeth Conference of 1908 (in the Report of the Committee 
on The Separate Churches of the East), containing the following 
paragraph, is worthy of careful consideration: — 

The Armenian Church declares with 

justice that its absence from the Council of Chalcedon 
was due to political reasons, more than anything 
else, and has always strenuously denied, and apparently 
with no little reason, the charges of Aphthartodocetic 
heresy which have been leveled against it." 

The Rev. Dr. J. M. Neale compares the Armenian and 
English churches as being both misrepresented by charges 
of heresy, the first with Monophysitism in its Creeds, the 
second with Calvinism in its Articles. 

The history of Armenia has been but one long martyrology. 
The Church, persecuted and oppressed, separated from com- 
munion with the Orthodox East, has nevertheless been the 
great sustaining l)ond of union. Subject in part of her domain 
to the Turk, in another to the Orthodox Russian, attacked 
by Roman Catholic and Protestant, she has in a wonderful 
way preserved her corporate life and identity. 

With the great nationalist movement of tlie 19th century, 
Armenian solidarity was much strengthened. The Armenians 
caught at a revival of national life as if it had never undergone 
an interruption, renewing their traditions and assimilating 
all that seemed to favor their development. Like the Seven 
Sleepers of the legend, they awoke without suspecting that 


the}' wore omcrgiiifi; Iruiu a slocj) in wliicli tlicy had Ix-on 
wrapped for several centuries. W'liat is no h'ss surprising 
is tliat the Armenian i)eo])li', notwitlistanding their wide 
dispersion throughout the world, are still bound together 
by a conunuuity of sentiment and character. Witli them 
the spell of religion is ever great, the niodern spirit has scarcely 
touched it; and even if the younger generation is less docile 
than formerly to the guidance of the clergy, nevertheless 
no one dreams of breaking the covenant which the nation 
has entered into with the Church, Even when the Armenian 
loses his faith, he never ceases to continue loyal to his Church. 
He instinctively feels that if she becomes undermined all 
will crumble. 

In the 19th century the Armenian Church became the 
object of active proselytism on the part of Roman and Protes- 
tant missionaries. Now, as a result, the Christian forces 
are divided into three parts: the National or "Gregorian" 
Church, the Roman communion, and the Protestants. Yet 
in spite of these defections from the National Church, the 
great majority are still members of it, and the nation as a 
whole has profited by its contact with western energy and 
ideals. In the National Church to-day we find a more system- 
atic and more active administration, a better instructed clergy, 
more suitable buildings, more solemn ritual, more edifying 
sermons, — such have been the results of the work of progress 
since the 19th century revival. This uninterrupted growth 
of character has of necessity led the longings of the Armenians 
toward a more perfect ideal of social welfare, and has moved 
them to force on the ears of the civilized world their legitimate 
desire for a real participation in the blessings of modern civ- 

It will be helpful to outsiders to say a word on the Pro- 
fession of Faith of the Armenian Church. She recognizes 
only the first three Ecumenical Councils as truly Ecumenical 
and binding. Her Creed is that of the Council of Nicsea. 
It contains almost exclusively the dogma of the Incarnation, 
which she preserves with neither modification nor addition. 
However, she has a second creed, drawn up later, which is 
used in her ritual. It is recited by the clergy at their ordina- 
tion, but it differs from the former only in amplifying the 
formulas, the chief of which relates to the nature of Jesus 

Armenian theologians ])elieve that that formula should 
be deemed sufficient for the purpose of rebutting the imputa- 
tion of Eutychianism. The interpretation in question consists 
in the expression One Nature united. Eutyches treats of 


a blend and a confusion of the two natures; the Armenian 
Church accepts the expression which she attributes to S. 
Cyril, One Nature of the Word Incarnate, and so she is*^ndeed 
]\Ionoi)hysite, yet she solemnly and officially anathematizes 
Eutyches and his error, believing that she expresses the Ephes- 
ian doctrine truly. But to an outsider it is evident that her 
formularies need the definitions pronounced at Chalcedon, 
if they are to be regarded as Orthodox and in harmony with 
the belief of the Universal Church. There is a failure to 
grasp the fact that in the One Person of Christ there are two 
Natures not only indivisibly joined, but also unconfusedly 
distinct. The difference between "Person" and "Natures" 
is obscured in the Armenian formulari(>s, yet despite this 
her faith is very close to the Orthodox. She is not crudely 
Monophysite. The differences which divide the Armenian 
and the Greek Orthodox Church relate solely to the rejection 
l)y the former of the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon and 
to her non-recognition of the succeeding Councils. Yet 
if these Councils have never been recognized by the Armenian 
Church, nevertheless, the points which were determined by 
them have never been officially rejected. 

The worship of images, though not wholly banished from 
Armenian churches, has been confined to the narrowest Hmits. 
Statues are debarred. Pictures and bas-reliefs are blessed 
and anointed with holy oil and placed over altars. There 
are no holy icons in Armenian churches. 

As to the expression of dogmas the Armenian Church 
holds strictly to the decrees of the first three Councils. She 
does not, therefore, admit the Filioque, the pains of Purgatory, 
indulgences, and the papal monarchy. She believes in Unitas 
in necessariis et libertas in duhiis et charitas in omnibus. 

Excepting Extreme Unction, the Armenian Church admin- 
isters all the Seven Sacraments. Infants receive Baptism 
by complete and horizontal immersion; though in necessity 
Baptism by sprinkling is not held invalid. Confirmation, 
or holy anointing, is administered conjointly with Baptism 
by the Priest, and the infant at once receives the Body of 
Christ. Holy Communion is administered without distinction 
of age, in both Elements, by means of the Consecrated Host 
l)eing dipped in the Precious Blood. The wafer is made 
of unleavened bread, unfermented, and is prepared and baked 
by the priests. The wafer for Consecration is always single 
and is broken by the Priest into particles for each communicant. 
Reservation is practiced. 'J'he Sacrament of Penance or 
Confession is administered b(>fore persons receive Holy Com- 
munion. The Sacrament of Orders is conferred by the imposi- 


tion of hands with juaNcr and the hotowal ot apifropriatc 
ha(lf2;(>s for each order, ruction is ^ivcn for thi- I'ricstliood 
and Ki)is{-()i)atc. 'l\w onh-rs h"adiiif>; up to and includin}; 
tho ])ri('stly odicc arc seven in nundxT. The seven orders 
are conferred l)y the Bishop, lh(> l'>piscoi)ate l)y three Bishops. 
'rii(> Sacrament of Marriage is caUed tlie Sacrament of the 
("rown, and is sohiniiized 1>> the Priest. Divorce is canonieally 
permitted and is pronounced un(h'r the authority of the C'alli- 
oHcos or Patriarch. 

The hierarchic order comprises the four following:; deforces: 
(1) The Supreme Patriarch or Cathohcos; (2) the Patriarch 
or special Cathohcos, Exarch, or Primate; (3) the Archbishop 
or Metrojiohtan; (4) the Bishoj). The Supreme Patriarch 
or C'atholicos of all the Armenians resides at present at Etch- 
miadzin. The particular function of the Catholicos is to 
he head of the Church and to consecrate Bishops and bless 
the holy chrism. The governing system of the Church, 
however, is one of decentralization. 

The clergy of the Church are divided into two quite dis- 
tinct categories: the regular clergy, who are celibate, and 
the married or secular clergy. With the latter, marriage 
must precede their ordination to the diaconate. If a widower 
wishes to marry again, he must al)andon his clerical function 
and can do so without blame. The functions of the married 
clergy embrace whatever is concerned with the spiritual 
direction of the people — administering the Sacraments, daily 
services, etc. The married clergy cannot reach the Episcopate, 
unless widowers. The cehbate clergy are chiefly trained 
in the monasteries, which are in fact little else than seminaries. 
They devote themselves exclusively to preaching and hierarchic 
duti(>s, for the administration of the Sacraments does not 
come within their province. 

Among the Armenians, the laity play a large part, for, 
except in Sacramental acts, for which ordination is indispens- 
able, nothing is done in ecclesiastical administration without 
the co-operation of the laity. For example, the parish Priest 
is chosen by the vote of his parishioners. The Bishop cannot 
ordain a married Priest without the consent of the laity. 
Six sevenths of the members of the Diocesan Councils are 
laymen, and the Councils elect the Bishops. Even the election 
of the Catholicos is by an assembly largely composed of laymen. 
In Turkey each parish church is managed by a council composetl 
entirely of laymen. This council manages the church, the 
school, and the domestic affairs of the community. Finances 
are also controlled by councils of laymen. In Russia, the 
power of tiie laity is not as great; for examjile, there the laity 


have no control of the management of dioceses. But enough 
has been said to show how very democratic the Armenian 
Church is. By her long history of steadfastness in the face 
of all sorts of troubles she arouses our admiration; by her 
noble army of martyrs she calls for our praise, and as one 
of the most ancient Christian communions she bespeaks 
our interest and sympathy. 


1. Industrial and Social Conditions. The Armenians 
here are practically all of the laboring class. Some have 
little shops — groceries, dry goods, etc. A few do photo- 
engraving. In California they are farmers. In New York 
are a few rich rug merchants. They are all kept poor by 
sending back much money each year to their kinsfolk in 
Armenia. Nearly all are men, as the women have stayed 
behind. They live as "single" in boarding houses. Moral 
conditions are often bad, and there is much deterioration, 
owing to relaxation of all restraint and to their having prac- 
tically no church. 

As to Armenian women in America, thirty years ago 
there were none probabl}'. Lately the men have begun 
to send for their wives and fiancees to come here from iVrmenia. 
To-day about 18 per cent of the Armenians in America are 
women. These people are anxious to have family life here. 
Armenian women are by long tradition very chaste. 

2. Religious Conditions. Protestant missionaries for 
a time were very active. Armenians were urged to become 
Protestants in order to get work. Quite a number did so, 
but now have for the most part returned to the National 
Church. On July 25, 1889, the first Armenian priest came 
to this country to Worcester. The first Mass in Armenian 
was celebrated on July 28. Now there are 8 priests and 
1 Bishop. The priests have been rather ignorant and inefficient 
and unable to do much for the people in the way of uplift. 
They do not speak English and hardly know their own tongue. 
Some speak Turkish. 

The Roman Catholics have done little if anything about 
the Armenians in America; there are only 150 Roman Catholic 
Armenians in the United States. 

The Bishop welcomes the help and sympathy of the Amer- 
ican Catholic Church, which he says is more nearly in touch 
with the Armenian Church than any other religious body. 

*Com])ile(l by the Rev. .J. H. Cabot, from an interview witli Monseigneur 
Mouchegh Seropian, Armenian Bishop, 96 Day Street, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 


\n Hliodc Ishiiul he has twice lu'cii assisted by priests of our 
Cliurch ill weddings. He welcomes aivytliiiiK W(! can do, 
such as inviting Armenians to our services and loaniiifi; them 
our churclies. This last practice is carried on regularly at 
the (Miureh of the Advent, Boston, where the Armenian 
Hishoi) says Mass twice a montii and the church is i)acked 
to the doors by his people. 

3. Ecclesiastical Organization. The Armenian colony 
in America has an ecclesiastical constitution, drawn up Sep- 
teml)er 0, 1902, in the l^ull of the Catholicos of Etchmiadzin. 
Article 50 of this Constitution gives the right of administration 
of the churches to trustees, elected by the members. Each 
colony has its trustee. Also there is a central committee, 
a religious council, and a council of deputies of which the 
president is the Armenian Bishop, and the council is the 
representative body of the Armenian colony. Tlie stipends 
of the clergy are paid by the trustees, from the gifts of the 

4. Organizations, Social, Philanthropic, etc. Among 
the Armenians there is no exact counterpart of the Pan- 
Hellenic Union, but there are four sorts of organization: 
(1) political, (2) scholastic, (3) philanthropic, (4) religious. 
Among the poUtical organizations are the following: "Hent- 
chagist"— revolutionary, democratic, socialistic; ''Drochagist" 
— revolutionary, socialist; Constitutional— democratic. All 
these organizations are concerned only with the political 
and social conditions of the Armenians in Russia and Turkey. 
They have a weekly journal in America. Together they 
probably have not more than 3,500 members here. The 
Armenian colonies in America help to maintain a scholastic 
"union" in Armenia for the purpose of aiding the education 
of the children in the old country. The Armenians also have 
a "General Union of Help for the Armenians," with head- 
quarters in Egypt. Its purpose is to aid financially widows, 
orphans, oppressed workmen, needy schools, farmers Avhose 
lands have been pillaged,— in short all those who have suffered 
from the massacres. It has 25 or 30 branches in America 
with about 2,500 members. Thus it comes about that the 
Armenians in America send back to their relatives and charities 
in Armenia about 60 per cent of their earnings. Finally there 
is the women's union, whose purpose is to aid the Armenian 
churches in the United States, to educate the children here 
and teach them their native tongue. At present there are 
three such schools: at Cambridge, Charlestown, and Worcester. 
These organizations are under the protection of the Armenian 
clergy. In all the Armenian colonies here there are small 

libraries of native literature, cared for In- the local committees 
and for the use of the local colony. 

5. Statistics. It is impossible to get accurate figures. 
The Bishop thinks there are about 57,000 Armenians now 
in the United States. In 1895, there were only 5,000. (Quite 
a number live in California, where they have three churches.) 
There are about 12,000 in New England, mostly in Massa- 
cliusetts. In Worcester is a colony of 4,000 with a church 
building. They now have $6,000 toward a church in Boston. 
Dr. H. K. Carroll reports, for the year 1912, 21 churches with 
55,000 members. 

6. The Principal Cities and Tow^ns in New England 

where there are armenians. 


Boston, Worcester, Cambridge, Watertown, Charlestown, 
Brockton, Rockland, Brighton, Bridgewater, Middleboro, 
Stoneham, Lowell, Lawrence, Maiden, Salem, Peabody, 
Newburyport, Whitinsville, Springfield, Franklin, Revere 
(Beach), Lynn, Fitchburg, Haverhill. 

Rhode Island: 

Providence, Pawtucket, Central Falls, Woonsocket. 

Xeiv Hampshire: 

Nashua, Concord, Manchester. 


Portland. There is a colony in Fort Fairfield. Some 
of the men are naturalized, the colony having been there 
some time. They attend the Roman Church. There are 
a number of children, probably born in this countr}-. 


New Haven, Hartford, New Britain, New London, Bridge- 


1. By A. H. Sachaklian. 

The social life of the Armenians in America is distinctly 
colonial; they do not enter into American society, due to 
various causes. Language has a great deal to do with it, 
and then the American society is not so warm in her reception 
of strangers (foreigners) as is expected. 


'IMic luiinc coiulit ions, oppression in AriiH'ni;i and tin- 
conscipicnt tlioiijilit of "how can \\r Ix' rTlicNcd?" is tlic 
binding; cord Ix'twccu ArnuMiiun colonics. 

For centuries tliey have been lauji;li1 that llieir ( lod is 
alile to make tliein liapp.\' liotli lici'e and in Ilea\cn. 'liny 
hiive i)ra\'ed and i)ra\'ed. No response was }j;iven to tlieir 
prayer. They have h'tiriied here in America the laws <jf "cause 
and effect" and the "survival of the fittest." Consecpiently 
the hold of reliji;ioii on them is very weak, hut their moral 
condition is far above what would be supposed. 

Some years ago, through the effort of the Armenian Bishop 
a small, but fine, church was built at Worcester, Mass. A 
few years later all the Armenian colonies in America were 
organized on the same principle as the mother Church in 
Armenia, antl adoi)t(Ml a constitution. 

The Roman Catholic Church does absolutely nothing 
to help them. Her one condition is that they should accept 
the Roman faith before receiving any assistance. The Prot- 
estants occasionally loan their parish houses for meetings. 
It has been the Episcopal Church that has opened her door 
and let the Armenians hold their service and receive spiritual 

2. By Dr. H. S. Jelali.w 

There has always been a sisterly relation between the 
Episcopal Church and the ancient Armenian Church. The 
Episcopal Church can do a good deal toward the spiritual 
and intellectual advancement of the Armenians in this country 
by a sympathetic attitude toward this oldest Christian Church; 
by permitting its priests to co-operate with the Armenian 
priests everywhere in solving those religious and civic problems 
that must confront every new colony in a new land; by opening 
the doors of its church edifices for the Armenians to hold 
their religious services; by forming local information bureaus 
to find work for the newcomers, and finally, where there is 
no local Armenian church organization, l)y administering 
to their spiritual needs. 


There is only one good history in our western tongue: — 
The Church of Armenia, her history, doctrine, discipline, 

liturgy, literature, and existing condition. By the Armenian 

Patriarch of Constantinopl(>, IVIgr. ^Malachia Ormanian. 

English translation, ])ul)lished by A. R. ]\Iowbray & Co., 

Ltd.. London, 1912. 


Bishop Seropian is preparing an extensive history of the 
Armenians in America. The first volume is already published. 
It is in Armenian. 

The Armenian Church. By Archdeacon Dowling. 
London. (S. P. C. K.) The Ven. Theodore E. Dowling is 
associated with the Bishop of the Church of England in 

Through Armenia on Horseback. By George H. 
Hepworth. New York, 1898. 



By the Rev. Thomas Burgess, Saco, Maine. 

Til!-: AT,l^AXIANS 

Tho Albanians (Sliky|)('tars, Arnauts) arc |)('rliai)s the 
most uni(iu(> and least known race in Europe. Their JUKS*'*! 
mountain land borders the Adriatic between Montem-gro 
and (Ireeee. Though this region is right across from the 
"heel" of ltal>. yet some of its most inaccessible districts 
are less accurately mai)])ed than — say, central Africa. Most 
of Albania (a designation for a region ethnic, not yet political) 
is mountain land, traversed only by bridle paths. Its unedu- 
cated and uncivilized but stalwart and proud people seem to 
belong to a thousand years ago. Unconquerable Montenegro 
has become famous in song and story; but unconcpierable 
Albania, a land equally romantic in traditions and heroism, 
is as yet unsung, save for Byron's Suliotes. 

The modern Albanians are, scholars now generally agree, 
the direct descendants of the ancient pre-Hellenic lUyrians. 
There for more than four thousand years this race has persisted, 
while all about was Hellenized, or Latinized, or Slavicized. 
Their language is pretty surely the one surviving specimen 
of the original languages of the Balkan peninsula before the 
days of Homer. 

After the division of the Roman Empire the land of the 
Albanians became part of the Eastern Empire, although 
ecclesiastically it remained for a long time part of the Patri- 
archate of Rome. CJoth, Slav, Venetian, finally Turkish, 
invasions beat about the edges of this land, and partly though 
never wholly conquered it; its people rarely intermarried or 
became assimilated Avith the invaders, although they often 
furnished their armies with the best fighting men, for above 
all else the Albanians have ever been warriors. When the 
Turks swept over the peninsula, the great national hero of 
the Albanian race, Scanderbeg, united the tribes, and from 
1444 to 1466 beat back the Ottoman. After his death Albania 
became part of the Ottoman Empire, though many of the 
tribes were never conquered, and have persisted in a state 
of semi-independence, never admitting the Turkish tax collector. 
The famous and bloody Ali Pasha of Janina, with his practically 
independent principality, was an Albanian. Albanians have 
made up the Sultan's bodyguard, and some of the Albanians 
fought heroically on the Greek side in 1821-28. 

Woods, in "The Danger Zone of Europe," says: "Towards 
the Turkish Government they have occupied for many years 


in Europe the same position as that held in Asia Minor by 
the Kurds. Both races are religiously unorthodox, and both 
races have been utilized by the Turks to suppress the Chris- 

The government of the Albanians has been and is tribal, 
often patriarchal in the north and feudal in the south. In 
1822, however, the Turks practically obliterated the southern 
aristocracy. It is this tribal and divided organization which 
has throughout the centuries prevented the Albanians from 
becoming a united nation. Only once in their history, under 
Scanderbeg, have they been welded into one nation. And 
yet there was and is an intense nationalistic or ethnic spirit, 
and the Albanian is before all else proudly an Albanian. A 
nationalistic movement has been promulgated in the present 
generation, which has a very important bearing upon the 
present crisis in the Balkan peninsula. 

The race's religious history is as follows: St. Paul writes, 
"Round about into Illyricum I have fully preached the Gospel 
of Christ." Probably by the 3d or 4th century the Albanians 
became entirely converted. Their land was for centuries 
part of the Western Patriarchate, and until the Schism of 
East and West the Albanians gave allegiance wholly to Rome, 
and for the most part after the Schism up to the conquest 
by the Turks. Scanderbeg brought the whole nation under 
the Pope. A century after the Turkish conquest a majority 
of the Albanians had become perverted to Mohammedanism. 
In the past century Austria has carried on a Roman Catholic 
propaganda in the north through Jesuits, and, later, Italy 
through the Franciscans; in the south and east, Greeks, Bul- 
garians, and Servians have carried on an Eastern Orthodox 
propaganda, and the Turks have rejoiced thereat, since it 
has been to their interests to keep the Albanians from becom- 
ing united in creed. Much of the Christian propaganda, 
Roman and Eastern Orthodox, has been, Albanians allege, 
with political aims. Yet whatever the religion of the Albanian, 
he is never strictly orthodox. The Mohammedan Albanian 
women go unveiled, and polygamy is rare. Thousands of 
Mohammedan Albanians are secretly Christian. Moreover, 
tribal loyalty and the codes of ancient custom are far more 
to the Albanian than religion or the laws of the Koran or 
the Church. It is said that sometimes an Albanian will 
be both circumcised and baptized and take his chances for 
either Paradise. The Roman clergy of the north wear fierce 
Albanian mustaches. Although religious differences are some- 
times the cause of quarrels, yet the feud of tribe against tribe 
unites Mohammedan and Christian by stronger ties. 


Tho i)r('s('nt Alhuniuu ixjpuhition of what Albanituis cluim 
as their rightful hiiul is somcwlicre from 1,0U0,()()() t(j 2J)in),- 
000. Of these 200,000 to 300,000 are Roman Catholic, and 
300,000 to (iOO.OOO Eastern Ortliodox. liound about the 
edges, minfj;led hut not assimilated with the Albanians, are 
several hundred thousand Orthodox Greeks, Hulj;arians, 
Serbs, and Vlachs, who claim those edges are rightfully theirs. 
The hatred of the Albanian for Slav, especially Serb, is century 
old, and he also roundly hates the Greek. In the Balkan 
war of 1912 the Albanians for the most part, including the 
immigrants in America, Christian as well as Moslem, strongly 
favored the Turk. 

We must make mention of the wild customs of this unusual 
race. Lawless they are in one sense; absolutely bound by 
law in another. The strict and complex codes of traditional 
customs direct their daily life— the law of the vendetta, blood 
feuds preserved through generations, suspended sometimes 
by the besa or ''peace of God"; the forbidding of marriage 
of cousins by the male line, even far removed, as incestuous; 
the purchase money always required to be paid for wives; 
the ramifications of the laws governing tribal and family 
management; the strictest laws of hospitality. There are 
some of the northern tribes which shave the head and tattoo 
the body. All men carry firearms. In some districts 25 
per cent of the men die violent deaths. The bond of brother- 
hood, sworn in mingled blood, between man and man, is 
frequent, and is as romantic as any such bond of ancient story. 
Yet fierce and barbarous as is the Albanian, especially of 
the north, he is a man w^onderfully brave and faithful even 
to death, and has been found the most trusty servant and 
loyal follower in the whole Near East. 

The Albanians may be divided into two distinct parts: 
the fierce Ghegs of the north, and the more affable Tosks 
of the south. The Tosks are more civilized than the Ghegs, 
and the tribal system is not so clearly defined among them, 
nor do they adhere to the codes of blood vengeance in the 
same fierce way as the northern tribesmen. Moreover, there 
is more brotherly feeling between the Eastern Orthodox 
and Mohammedan Tosks than between the Roman Catholic 
Ghegs and the "True Believers." All this is important 
to remember, as nearly all the Albanian immigrants in America 
are Tosks. 

It is national education which has brought during the past 
century the five independent Balkan kingdoms to their 
present advanced state of civilization and aspiration. Among 
the Albanians education until the past decade had been prac- 


tically non-existent. In the last few years, however, it has 
been the strivings for education in the Albanian language 
that has created a new nationalistic spirit, enthusiastic and 
naive. There are Greek, Serb, Austrian, Italian, and Turkish 
schools for the Albanians, but with little impression on the 
majority of the population. Practically not until the 19th 
century has there been any written Albanian language, and 
in the schools established by each of the above nationalities 
the Albanian has been taught in a different alphabet, making 
confusion worse confounded. A few years ago All)anians 
met in a congress and adopted a modified Latin alphabet, 
which is that of the present Nationalistic movement. This 
movement towards a purely Albanian education has been 
kept alive largely by educated Albanians in European cities, 
and also by one in America, wdio publishes a paper in Albanian, 
which has been refused admission by the Turkish authorities 
into Albania. 

The use of the Albanian language in the Eastern Orthodox 
Liturgy has been prohibited by the Patriarch of Constantinople, 
and those priests who presume to use it are excommunicated. 
Albanians declare that the Patriarch's object is to "Hellenize." 
An Orthodox League was formed a few years ago whose objects 
are to resist Greek aggression and force the Patriarch to 
allow at least a part of the Liturgy to he celebrated in Alba- 

What the outcome of this ecclesiastical tangle, or what 
the result of the Balkan war of 1912, will be upon the future 
<jf Albania is a grave and complex question. 

About twenty-five years ago two Albanians came to Amer- 
ica, and settled in Cambridge, Mass. Ten years ago a few 
more began to come. But it was not until five or six years 
ago that immigration proper of the race began. 

There are to-day about 50,000 Albanians in America from 
Albania, and the United States immigration authorities 
have not yet learned to call them by name; they are not des- 
ignated as Albanians in our immigration reports. 

About 15,000 are in New England; and the rest in New 
York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska, Utah, 
and the three Pacific States, and in Canada. The large 
majority are Eastern Orthodox Tosks. Only some 2,000 
are Mohammedans, concentrated for the most part in three 
cities, St. Louis, Biddeford, Me. (800), and New Bedford, 
Mass. In Chicago, Indiana, and New York there are also 
some Roman Catholic Ghegs. 

In New England among the colonies are: Biddeford, 
Lewiston, Portland, Augusta, Rockland, Me. ; Concord and 


Miinclu'stcr, N. II.; Hoston, luist Ciinihiidiic, \;ilick, IIikIsoii, 
Southbridiic Fitclihurg, Mass. 

\'(r\ lew have had any education, and nciulx all arc day 
lal)()i('rs; in Now I'ln^land, in the factories,- proud warrior 
iuountaiue(M-s scruhhinj;- mill floors at the coiiunaiids of the 
foreman, and at tlic incic>' of llic interpreter. 

The l'an-Ali)anian lu'deralion of America, callecl "The 
Hearth"" (Vatra), incorporated, has its headquarters in a 
neatly fitted office at 10 Ferdinand Street, Boston. The 
executive, the general secretary, Faik Bey Konitza, one of 
the apostles of Nationalism, is a graduate of a French Uni- 
versity, an M.A. of Harvard, and an accomplished philolo- 
gist and historical scholar, lie i)ul)lishes a paper in Albanian, 
''The Siiti'' (Dielli). There are eighteen branches of the 
Federation in America. Its objects are educational, to give 
lectures, teach Albanian and English, publish inexpensive 
literature, and above all to foster the national traditions. 
There are two Eastern Orthodox Albanian priests in America, 
with headquarters in Boston, the Rev. Fan 8. Nolli and the 
Rev. Naum Cere. Father Nolli is a graduate of Harvard. He 
has published in Boston, in the Albanian language and adopted 
latin alphabet, The Liturgy, etc., "The Book of the Epistles 
and CJospels," and a three-act drama, "Israel and the Philis- 
tines." These may be found in the Boston Library, and 
on their last pages the names of Albanian subscribers from 
all over the United States and southeast Europe. These 
two priests travel over our country ministering to their people 
in their native tongue. They were ordained under Russian 
auspices and are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Arch- 
bishop Platon in New York. 

After the Balkan War broke out P'aik Konitza and Father 
Nolli went to Europe and are taking a leading part in the 
reconstruction of Albania. The Albanian colonies in Biddeford, 
Maine, in New Hampshire, and elsewhere have sent earnest 
petitions to the Euro])ean Powers appealing for the protection 
of their fatherland. 


There are two other classes of Albanians not included 
in the above, which must also l)e mentioned: those from 
Greece and those from Italy and Sicily. 

In the 14th century some thousands of Albanians descended 
into Greece, and others were moved there later by the Turks. 
At the present time there are some 200,000 descendants of 
these in Boeotia, Attica, and elsewhere, and on a number 


of the islands. They have become Greek in their aspirations 
and all are of the Greek Church; yet they have largely main- 
tained their distinction of race and their language, — some 
at the present day in sight of Athens are unable to speak 
Greek. There are doubtless a number of these Greek Albanians 
among the immigrants in America, but they consider themselves 
Greeks, and are so considered by the Albanians from Albania. 

In the 15th centurj- there was a migration to Sicily and 
southern Italy. At the present time there are in southern 
Italy 72 Albanian communes with 150,000 inhabitants, of 
whom four fifths are Roman Catholics of the Latin rite, and 
one fifth Uniats of the Greek rite. In Sicily there are 7 
Albanian communes with 52,000 people. Thus have persisted 
for five centuries these colonies of Albanians without being 
absorbed into the surrounding population, or losing their 
language. Of these Italian- Albanians there are about 10,000 
in America, Roman Catholic and Uniat, mostly in New York, 
New Orleans, and Boston. 

This race is a difficult one to study from books, because 
of the paucity of literature on the subject and the lack of 
exact knowledge in many of such books or articles. 

The three best books deahng with the Albanians are: — 
Macedonia and Its Races. By H. N. Brailsford. 
The Burden of the Balkans. By M. Edith 'Durham. 
The Danger Zone of Europe. By H. C. Woods. 
Boston, 1911. 


Macedonia and Its Races. By H. N. Brailsford. 

The Danger Zone of Europe. By H. Charles Woods. 
Boston, 1911. 

The Burden of the Balkans. By M. Edith Durham. 

High Albania. By M. Edith Durham, 1910. 

The Immigrant Tide. By E. A. Steiner. New York, 

The East End of Europe. By Allen Upward. London, 

The Balkan Trail. By Fred. ]\Ioore. New York, 1906. 

Balkans from Within. By Reginald Wyon. New York, 

The Near East. Anonymous. New York, 1907. 

Article on Albania in Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edi- 
tion, J. D, Bourchier. 



H. F. Tozer. London, 1809. 

All the above except the last are recent books. A few 
earlier books may bo found under Albania in lar^e libraries, 
as in the Boston Public Lil)rary. There are some good German 
works on the subject. In the Boston Library may be found 
Fr. Nollis' Albanian liturgies and drama, some French grammars 
of the Albanian language, and a French translation of Albanian 

Eleven magazine articles on Albania of more or less value 
have been printed since 1900. (See a Periodical Index.) 

Duchesne's The Churches Separated from Rome, has 
a chapter on " Ecclesiastical Illyria." 

The great authority for the past ecclesiastical history of 
Albania is the monumental work of Farlati in 14 folio volumes, 
Illyricum Sacrum. 




The arrangement and most of the details of this Appendix 
are taken, with his kind permission, from Mr. Athelstan 
Riley's "Synopsis of Oriental Christianity." The order in 
which the Patriarchates and Churches are placed is "the 
order of precedence at present observed among the Orthodox," 
as given in "The Organization of the Orthodox Eastern 
Churches," by Margaret Dampier. Some of the figures 
were furnished by the British Legation in Vienna and by 
the Bulgarian Legation in London, others were taken from 
"The Religions of Modern Syria and Palestine," 1912, by 




(Including the 
of Bosnia and 




Ch. of RutiSIA. 

(Including the old 
Ch. of Georgia.) 

Metropolitan Ch. 
OF Cyprus. 

The Servian 
Orth. Church 
IN Hungary, 
Cr[oatia. and 

Ch. of Montene- 




Turkey in Europe. 
Turkish Islands in 
the Aegean, and 
Asia Minor north 
of the Patriarch- 
ate of Antioch 
and west of the 

In Austria-Hun- 


67 Egypt. 

Cilicia, all Syria 
north of Pales- 
tine, and Mesopo 

Palestine, and 
south to Egypt 

The Russian Em- 

431 Island of Cyprus 

The Banat, Croatia 
and Slavonia. 


Ch. of Greece. 

1850 or 1&33 

The Rumanian] iggg 
Orth. Church in 

Metropolitanate 1873 
of bukowina and 
Dalmatia. I 

Ch. of Servia. 
Ch. of Rumania. 

Oh. of Bolqaria. 



The Banat and 

Bukovvina and Dal 
matia, in Austria 
(of Serbs. Ruthe 
nians and Ruma- 


















Title of Chief Bishop or 
Governing Synod. 

The Most Entirely Holy 
Archbishop of Constanti- 
nople, New Rome, and 
Oicumenical Patriarch. 

The Most Blessed and Holy 
Pope and Patriarch of the 
Great City Alexandria, and 
of all Egypt, Pentapolis, 
Libya, and Ethiopia; 
Father of Fathers, Pastor 
of Pastors, Archpriest of 
Archpriests, Thirteenth 
Apostle, and CEcumenical 

The Most Blessed and Holy 
Patriarch of the Divine 
City Antioch. Syria, Arabia, 
Cilicia. Iberia, Mesopo- 
tamia, and all the East; 
Father of Fathers and 
Pastor of Pastors. 

The Most Blessed and Holy 
Patriarch of the Holy City 
Jerusalem, and all Pales- 
tine, Syria, Arabia beyond 
Jordan, Cana in Galilee, 
and Holy Sion. 

The Most Holy Governing 
Synod of All the Russias. 

President. The Most Rever- 
end the Metropolitan of St. 
Petersburg and Ladoga, 
Abbot of St. Alexander 
Nevsky Lavra. 

(The Exarch of Georgia, a 
member ex officio of the 
Holy Synod.) 

The Most Blessed and Holy 
Archbishop of Nova Jus- 
tiniana and All Cyprus. 

The Most Holy and Rever- 
end the Archbishop of 
Carlowitz, Servian Metro- 
politan and Patriarch. 

The Metropolitan of Scan- 
deria and the Seacoast, 
Archbishop of Tsettin 
(Cetinje). Exarch of the 
Holy Throne of Ipek. 

The Holy Synod of the 
Kingdom of Greece. 

The Reverend the 
Archbishop of Hermann- 
stadt. Metropolitan of the 
Orthodo.x Rumanians in 
Hungary and Transyl- 

The Most Reverend the 
Archbishop of Czernowitz, 
Metropolitan of Bukowina 
and of Dalmatia. 

The Archbishop of Belgrade 
and Metropolitan of All 

The Holy Synod of Ru- 

Prexiiient. The Archbishop 
and Metropolitan of Hun- 
garo-Wallachia, Primate of 
All Rumania. 

The Exarch of Bulgaria. 



Evti/cfiiaii . 
RecoKiii/i im 
the first llirec 
(Ecnineii ic a 1 
Councils (Ni- 
cea, Constan- 
tinople, and 

Ch. ok Ar- 


r Coptic or 
Ch. (in- 
fill <1 i n k 
the Abys- 
sinian Ch.) 

the first three 

AN or Ja- 
cobite Ch. 


Recogn i zi ng 
the first two 
CEcume.n i c a 1 
Councils (Ni- 
cea and Con- 

as.syrian , 
or East 

C H R I 

St. Thom 

AS (3).*** 


Nearly two mil- 
lions of Arme- 
nians live in 
Armenia, the 
rest are scat- 
tered over the 
whole East, the 
remainder of 
the Turkish Em- 
liire, Russia. 
Persia, and 
India, with 
small groups in 
Western Coun- 

Egypt and Abys- 

Title of 
Chief Bishop. 

3.7.50,000 The servant of 
I Jesus Christ 
I by the (irace 
I of God Catho- 
I licos of All 
I the Armc- 
I n i a n s , and 
Patriarch of 
the Holy Con- 
vent of Etch- 
miadzin (2).** 

The country 
which lies be- 
tween Antioch 
and Mosul, com- 
prising the an- 
cient province 
of 8yria Supe- 
rior, the west- 
ern part of Cili- 
cia. and the 
northern part of 
Mesopot a m i a 
and India. 
That part of 
K u r d i s t a n 
which lies in 
Turkey and Per- 
sia between the 
towns of Van, 
Jezireh, and Mo- 
sul on the west 
and the Lake of 
A small congre- 
gation in India. 

Travaneore and 

and (?) 
in Abys- 



The Patriarch 
of Egypt, 
Je ru s a lem , 
the Holy City. 
Nubia, Abys- 
sinia, the Five 
Western Cities 
and all the 
preaching of 
St. Mark. 

or Metropoli 
tan of A.xum 
or Abyssinia.) 

Mar Ignatius, 
by the (irace 
of God Patri 
arch of the 
Throne of An- 
tioch, bf India 
and of all the 

The PatriarchlQudshan- 



I of the 
1 from 
\ which it 
, severed^ 

Etchmi- Putriar- 
adzin. in chate of 
Russian' Constan- 
territory tinople. 
near Mt. 

Pat r i a r - 
chate of 

Mardin. Patriar- 
chate of 

Mar Shimun 
Catholicos of 
the East. 

2(K).4G7iMetran of Mel- 

IS, near 
J u 1 a - 
merk, on 
the Les- 
ser Zab. 

chate of 

Mel an -j Patri a r - 

karai. chate of 


(])*— There is intercommunion between the Armenians, Copts, West Syrians or Jacobites, 
and, to a lesser extent. East Syrians or Chaldeans. 

(2)**— There are four other Patriarchs in the .Armenian Church besides the Patriarch of 
Etchmiadzin, i.e., the Patriarclis of Cimxt<intiiuii>lc. Jirusalem, Sis, Akhtamar. The last two 
are only Bishops with the honorary title of Patriarch. 

(3)***— This Church in South India is a remnant of the missionary work of the Assyrian, 
Chaldean or East Syrian Church, and has maintained its existence without break to the 
present time. Its communion with the East Syrians was interrupted after the Turkish in- 
vasion of Central Asia, w hen the East Syrians were driven' back to their present mountain 
fastness in Kurdistan, and it was subjugateil to the Latin obedience through the efforts of 
Portuguese missionaries at the Synod of Diampcr in 15W. In UV>3. about three fourths of 
them rejected the Latin obedience, being heliied in the maintenance of their independence 
by the l>utcli c()n(iuest of Cochin, and. in l<i(;.'), on the arrival of the Jacobite Gregorius. 
Metropolitan of .lerusalem, allowed their administrator to receive consecration at his 
hands. They continued in loose connection with the .lacobites till 1S42, when the Jacobite 
Patrianh of Antioch consecrated Mar Athanasius Matthew the Metran of Melankarai. and 
since that time the Jacobite Patriarchs have claimed more and more authority iuthe Church. 


A communitj^ which appears to be directly connected 
with the ancient Bogomiles still exists amongst the Slav 
races to the east of the Adriatic. With this exception pure 
Oriental dissent seems to be confined to Russia, where the 
sects are numerous, and include over 113^2 millions of the 
population. These Dissenters may be roughly divided into 
the Raskolniks, or Old Believers, who broke away from the 
Church owing to the reforms of Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow, 
in the 17th century, and the successors of the mediaeval here- 
tics, such as the Dukobortzi, Skoptzi, etc.; of these the Ras- 
kolniks are by far the more important, numbering about 
103^ millions. The Pashkovists and Stundists (and perhaps 
the Molokans) would be better included in the subsequent 


Small Protestant congregations are scattered over the 
whole of the Turkish Empire, and are recognized as a distinct 
religious community by the Porte. These consist for the 
most part of the converts of the American Presbyterian and 
Independent missionaries who have labored continuously 
in the East since 1820, are always known as "English," and 
are generally confused with the Anglican Church. Proselj'tes 
are drawn chiefly from the Armenian Church, but there are 
also Greeks, Syrians, and a few Jews. Mohammedan converts 
are rare. 


Organized on lines similar to those of the Orthodox and Sep- 
arated Churches from which they have been formed. 
They retain their individual rites in a Latinized form, 
and to a certain extent the ancient ecclesiastical con- 
stitution and discipline of the Churches from which 
they have been drawn. The policy of the Vatican has 
been to bring them by degrees into closer conformity 
with the Roman Church in both rites and discipline. 

There are nine Papal Eastern Patriarchs. Four of these 
are Titular Patriarchs of the Latin Rite— i.e., the Patriarchs 
of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, and 
all reside permanently at Rome except the Patriarch of 


Jerusalem. Tlie other five Patriarchs arc Oriental Bishops 
in ciiar}i;e of the dill'erent Uniat C'hurches, as follows: The 
Patriarch of Antioch (Maronite), the Patriarch of Antioch 
(Greek), the Patriarch of Cilicia (Armenian), the Patriarch 
of Antioch (Syrian), the Patriarch of 15al)yIon (Chaldean). 

1. The Maronite Church— 300,000. 

Tiie Maronites of Lebanon (Syria) were originally 
Monothelite heretics. In the year 1182, the whole 
Church and Nation submitted to Rome. 

2. The Greek and Slav Uniats— 5,100,000. 

(a) Melchite. These use their own liturgies and 
not the Latin liturgies of Rome and may be classed 
under four heads:— 

(1) Pure Greeks — few. 

(2) Italo-Greeks— 50,000. 

(3) Gregorians — one congregation in Con- 

(4) Graeco-Arabs or Melchite— 110,000. 

(6) Ruthenian — Ruthenians and a few Serbs and 
Slovaks, 3,500,000. (The Ruthenians are the Little 
Russians dwelling in Galicia, Austria. Many in this 
country are now returning, as have their brethren in 
Russia, to the Orthodox Church.) 

(c) Rumaic — Rumanians in Hungary, 1,400,000. 

(d) Bulgarian — few. 

3. The Armenian Uniat Church— 130,000. 

4. The Syrian Uniat Church — 25,000 families. (Patriarch of 


5. The Chaldean Uniat Church: — 

Chaldees— 70,000. (Patriarch of Babylon.) 
Uniat church of Malabar— 200,000. 

6. The Coptic Uniat Church— 20,000. 


Those Slavic races in which the majority are neither 
Orthodox nor Uniat, but Roman Catholic according to the 
Latin Rite, are: Poles, Croatians, Slovenes, about one half 
the Slovaks, and the Bohemians and Moravians. (These 
last two were originally Eastern Orthodox.) 

VII — Also about 250,000 Albanians in North Albania are 
Roman Catholic of the Latin Rite. 




The f()llo\vin<i descriptive bibliography of books in the English language 
rccominoiKlod on tlio Eastern Orthodox Church was prepared by the Rt. 
Rev. I']d\v;u(i M. Parker, D.D., and the Rev. Thomas Burgess, as a committee 
appointed for the purpose by the American Branch of the Anglican and 
Eastern-Orthodox Churches Union. 

The Eastern Orthodox Church comprises about one f oui th of t he Christian 
people in the work! to-day. 

In order to stimulate and guide in America the reading on this subject, 
so little or so inaccurately known, the following book list has been com- 
piled by a committee of the American Branch of the Anglican and East- 
ern-Orthodox Churches Union, in consultation with eminent specialists; 
and arrangements have been perfected so that all the books and pamphlets 
l)n the list may be readily obtained through any bookstore in the country. 
Especially is this study opportune because of the present efforts towards 
Christian unity, and because of the present problem of the hordes of Eastern 
Orthodox Churchmen pouring into our country. 

Titles marked [E. C. A.] are official publications of the Eastern Church 

Rt. Rev. Edw.\rd j\I. Parker, 
Bishop Coadjutor of Xew Hampshire, 
Rev. Thomas Burgess, 

Saco, Maine, 
Special Committee. 


The following four books and two pamphlets should all be in every 
Churchman's library. They are interesting, and, taken together, cover 
fairly adequately the history, doctrine, and worship of the Eastern Church, 
its present condition, and its relations with the Anglican Church: — 

I. A Stcdy of the Eastern Orthodox Church. By the Rev. T. J. 

Lacey. New edition, 1912. Cloth, 50 els.; by mail 55 cts.; paper, 
25 cts. ; by mail 30 cts. 

A brief account of Orthodox historj' and characteristics and of Orthodox 
immigrants in America. This is the book to introduce the subject and to 
lend to others. 

II. Students' History of the Greek Church. Bv Rev. A. H. Hore. 

Price, $2.25; by mail $2.40. 

The best and most unbiased complete history from the Council of Nicea 
to the present day, including all parts of the Eastern Orthodox communion 
and also the non-Orthodox Eastern Churches, and the relations with the 
English Church; also a good introduction on doctrine and worship. 

Or as Substitute: 

Mother of .All Churches. Bv Rev. F. C. Cole. Price, .$1.40; by mail 
Vividly covers much ground in a sketchy, popular form. Might (but 
ought not to) take the place of the solid history of Hore for general reading. 

III. The Organization of the Orthodox Eastern Churches. By 

Margaret Dampier. [E. C. A.] Price, 40 cts.; by mail 45 cts. 
Contains outlines of the constitution of each of the four Patriarchates- 
and eleven autonomous Eastern Orthodox Churches. 


IV. Service Book of the Greco-Russian Church. Translated by 
Isabel Hapgood. Price, $4.00; by mail $4.2.5. 
The one complete standard translation of all the most important services, 
arranged for actual use of the Russian Church and invaluable for American 

Or as Substitute: 

A Little Orthodox Manual of Prayers of the Holy Orthodox Catholic 
Church. Done into English by F. W. Groves Campbell, LL.D. 
Price, $1.00; by mail $1.10. 
This should be obtained by all because of its private prayers and its 

convenient arrangement. It is the book to carry when attending an Eastern 

Eucharist. Contains only the Divine Liturgy (Eucharist) with proper 

tables, and private prayers and offices. 

The Catechism of the Orthodox Eastern Church. By Ignatius Mos- 
chake, sub-professor of Theology in the University of Athens and 
Professor in Education. Being the Shorter Edition of 1888. Cloth, 
20 cts.; by mail 23 cts. 
Used in the public schools in Greece. 

Hindrances and Progress in the Modern Greek Church. A paper 
by the Verv Rev. Const. Gallinicos of the Greek Church in Manchester, 
England. '[A. & E. O. C. U.] Price, 8 cts.; by mail 9 cts. 


Greeks in America. By Rev. Thomas Burgess. Illustrated. Price, 
about $1.50. 
" It is difficult for American Churchmen to realize the practical importance 
of a prompt and intelligent co-operation with the members of the Eastern 
Orthodox Church in this country. Mr. Burgess' book on 'The Greeks in 
America' gives exactly the information of their immigration to the United 
States and their distribution in this country, that will arouse us to a sense 
of responsibihty toward them, while it contains enough of their history and 
rehgious position to enable us to deal wisely with our fellow Chri.stians from 
Greece and Turkey. The chapters which I have read are interesting and 
well written, with a balance of statement and reasonableness, which makes 
the book a safe guide." — Edward M. Parker, Bishop Coadjutor of New 

Russia and Reunion. A Translation of Wilbois' L'Avenir de I'Eglise 
Russe. By the Rev. C. R. Davey Biggs, D.D. Together with Trans- 
lations of Russian Official Documents on Reunion and English Orders. 
[E. C. A.] Price, $1.00; by mail $1.10. 
A wonderfully interesting and sympathetic discussion in the form of 
letters, depicting the inner life of the Russian Church and Churchmen, all 
the more impressive because the author is a Roman Catholic. 

The Church and the Eastern Empire. By the Rev. Henry F. Tozer, M.A. 
Published as a volume in "Epochs of Church History" series, edited 
by the late Bishop of London. Price, 60 cts.; by mail 68 cts. 
For any extended reading on the subject, this little text-book must 
be the introduction. 

Greek Manuals of Church Doctrine. An account of four popular 
Catechisms. By the Rev. H. T. F. Duckworth, M.A. Representative 
in Cyprus of the E. C. A. [E. C. A.] Price, 60 cts. ; by mail 65 cts. 
A concise summary of doctrine. 

Russian Orthodox Missions: A Short Account of the Historical Develop- 
ment and Present Position of. By Very Rev. Eugene Smirnoff, 
Chaplain to the Imperial Russian Embassy in London. Cloth, 96 
pages, price, $1.20; by mail $1.25. 


Incoinj)let(' hut iiit crest iiifj;, and almost tho only work on this important 
subject. Price unlortunatcly is out of proportion to its size. 

History of Christianity in Japan. Vol. I., Roman ('atholic and flrfck 
Orthodox Religions. By Otis Car>'. Price, $2.50; by mail S2.70. 
Gives good brief account. 

Emimhk of the Tsau.s and Russians. \u\. HI., Religion, liy A. Lo Hoy 
Beaulieu. Tran.slated by Z. A. Ragozin. Price, $;j.OO; by. mail S:i.25. 
This large volume, .sold separately from \'ols. I. and II. on "The Country 
and Its lidiabitants" and "The Institutions" respectively, is vividly written 
by a great Frencli scholar and is (he best account in English of the Russian 
Church of to-day. 

Sevkn Ess.\ys on Christian Greece. By Demetrios Bikela.s. Translated 
by John, Marquess of Bute, K.T. Price $3.00; by mail S3. 15. 
The author was a great scholar of modern Greece. It is delightful reading 
and very valuable for a just and comprehensive view of the much maligned 
Byzantine l|]mpire, the period of Turkish slavery, and modern Greece from 
the standpoint of a Greek. 

Theodore of Studium. By Alice Gardner. Price, S3.00; by mail S3. 25. 

A fascinating life of this saint, poet, monk, with vivid picture of the 

Eastern Church in the eighth century, of the Empire, and of 

Brightm.\n's "Liturgies": Liturgies, Eastern and Western. Vol. I., 
Eastern Liturgies. Edited, with introduction and appendices, by 
V. E. Brightman, on the basis of a work by C. E. Hammond. Price, 
$6.75; by mail $7.00. 

This is the standard work for liturgical study. Mention should be 
made also of — 

East Syrian Daily Offices. Translated from the Syriac with Introduction, 
etc., by Bishop A. J. Maclean. [E. C. A.l Price, S3.40; by mail 

This scholarly work gives insight into this once powerful, so-caUed 
Nestorian Church. {Not Eastern Orthodox.) 

The Church of Citrus. By Rev. H. T. F. Duckworth, Representative 
of the E. C. A. in Cyprus. Price, 40 cts.; by mail 45 cts. 

History* of the Orthodox Church in Austria-Hungary-Hermannstadt. 
By Margaret G. Dampier. |E. C. A.] Price, 60 cts.; by mail 65 cts. 

Answer of the Great Church of Constantinople to the P.\pal Encyc- 
lical on Union. In Greek and English. Price, 75 cts. ; by mail SO cts. 

The Church of Armenia. Her History, Doctrine, Rule, Discipline, Lit- 
urgy, Literature, and Existing Condition. By Malachia Ormanian, 
formerly Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople. Translated from 
thcErench edition with the author's permission by G. Marcar Gregory, 
V.D., Lieutenant-Colonel, Indian Volunteer Force. With Introduction 
by the Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, D.D. Price, S2.00; by mall $2.20. 
A remarkable book by a native authority on this much misrepresented 

and almost orthodox Church. {Not Eastern Orthodox.) 


By the Vcn. T. E. Dowling, D.D., Anglican Archdeacon in Syria and Com- 
missary for Eastern Church Intercourse within the Anglican Bishopric 
of Jerusalem. 

The Armenian Church. Price, $L25; by mail $1.35. {Not Eastern 

The P.\triarchate of Jerusalem. Illustrated. Price 50 cts.; by mail 
55 cts. 


Sketches of Georgian Church History. With prefatory note by the 
Secretary of the Holy Sj-nod of Jerusalem. Price, about $1.00; by 
mail $1.10. 

Sketches of Caesarea, Palestike. Price, about 60 cts.; by mail 05 cts. 

Compilations of Rev. John Brownlie 

The following are titles of volumes of translations, centos, and suggestions 
from the mine of sacred poetiy contained in the Eastern service books. By 
the Rev. John Brownlie. Price of each, $1.40; by mail $1.50, except the 
second, the price of which is 60 cts.; by mail 65 cts. 

These are here placed in order of value to the student. The first four 
contain excellent introductions. 

Hymns of the Holy' Eastern Church. With Introductory Chapters 
on the History, Doctrine, and Worship of the Church. 

Hymns of the Greek Church. 

Hymns of the Apostolic Church. With Biographical Notes. 

Hymns from the Morningland. 

Hymns from the Greek Office Books, together with Centos and Sug- 

Hymns from the East. 

Dr. Neale's invaluable "Hymns of the Eastern Church" is, unhappily, 
out of print. 


The Orthodox Eastern Church. By A. Fortescue. Price, $2.25; by 
mail $2.35. 
Full of information but is written from an ultra-Papal standpoint. 

The Greek and English Churches. By Rev. Walter F. Adeney, D.D. 
International Theological Library. Price, $2.50; by mail $2.70. 
Full of information and strives to be fair but contains too much Prot- 
estant bias. 


Finlay's History of Greece. From its Conquest by the Romans (B. C. 

146 to A. D. 1864). Edited by H. F. Tozer. 7 vols., $19.50; by 

mail $21.00. 
The first two volumes of the above, carrying the history to A. D. 1057, 
may also be obtained in "Everyman's Library," library edition, cloth, 35 cts. 
per volume; postage 8 cts. additional. 

Orders for any of these, at wholesale or retail, direct or through booksellers, 
will be filled by 


Milwaukee, Wis. 

Publishing Agents for the American Branch of the Anglican and 
Eastern-Orthodox Churches Union 


This book is due two weeks from the last date stamped 
below, and if not returned at or before that time a fine 




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